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Self-reported and actual use of proactive and reactive classroom management strategies and their relationship with teacher stress and student behavior.
Transcript of Self-reported and actual use of proactive and reactive classroom management strategies and their relationship with teacher stress and student behavior.
In primary schools, teachers identified TOOT and hindering other children (HOC) as the most troublesome behaviors. HOC's are behaviors such as disobedience, making noises, and aggression. What is STRESS? Stress is a state of anxiety produced when events and responsibilities exceed one's coping abilities. Usually the individual assesses the situation as threatening and feels they do not have the resources or strategies to deal with the situation effectively. Sources of Teacher Stress work load
lack of resources
poor relationship with fellow teachers
expectations of others Impact of Disruptive Behavior at-risk for more serious condition ex: conduct disorders
less educational opportunities
decreased learning for entire class
lowered student achievement Categories of Management 1. Proactive strategies- used to lessen the likelihood of a child demonstrating a negative behavior. Encourages teacher to alter the situation BEFORE misbehavior can occur or escalate. Preventative.
2. Reactive strategies- teacher behaviors which occur after an inappropriate student behavior. More likely to be a negative response than a positive one. Remedial in nature. Hypothesis Researchers believed in classrooms where the proactive strategies were used there would be lower levels of teacher stress and classrooms using reactive strategies to manage student behaviors, there would be elevated levels of teacher stress.
Researchers further hypothesized that teachers who utilized proactive strategies would see more on -task behaviors where teachers who used reactive strategies would see less on-task behaviors. Participants 21 Catholic, government and independent schools in Melbourne. 97 teachers, all members of the Victorian Institute of Teacher.
73% females 24.7 % males
Aged 22-61 years, average age was 38.
Teaching experience ranged from 1-41 years.
A sub-sample of 20 teachers agreed to be observed in the class while teaching. 80%females, 20% males with 2-33 years experience. Materials Teachers completed 4 questionnaires:
1. demographics: age, sex, teaching qualifications and school and classroom demographics
2. student misbehavior : adapted from Child Behavior Survey and Classroom Behavior Problems Checklist
3. teacher management strategies: Competency and Behavior Management Survey
4. teacher self- reported stress: Teacher Stress Inventory Procedure Schools were contacted to as willingness to participate. Schools were selected using convenience sampling. If not enough schools agreed through convenience sampling then random sampling was used until enough schools agreed to participate. Then questionnaires were distributed and distributed at staff meetings, reply was to be mailed in. Those teachers who were also being observed were assigned a 4 digit code. The code was written at the top of the OPTIC and used as a tracking of information for observed teachers only. Observed teachers also completed the Observing Pupils and Teachers in Classroom Schedule(the OPTIC) which records the behaviors of the teachers and students during the observation. Student Behavior Teacher Behavior Self reported vs. actual use of management strategies Teacher Stress Management Strategies and Student Behavior Student Behavior Teacher Behavior Teacher Stress Management Strategies
and Student Behavior Methodological Limitations The results of the study found that student misbehavior was a problem in Australian primary schools which significantly impacted the learning environment. Observations of classrooms during the study suggests only 70% of children were on task at any given time. Observational findings were validated by the questionnaires which teachers completed. Positive teacher response outweighed negative teacher responses on behavior as proactive strategies outweighed the
use of reactive strategies. Most positive praise was given towards academic work while negative teacher responses were directed at
social behaviors. In general teachers self reported as feeling confident
in dealing with behaviors. Only 2.1% stated they needed training concerning management of their class, implying teachers do not require help managing the class. But when a classroom environment becomes disruptive most teachers reported they seek advice of other teachers, which was reported by the teachers as the most favored way of
learning new classroom management strategies. Moderate stress was found in the sample teachers with student misbehavior the primary source of stress. Using reactive strategies predicted 4 of 5 types of stress: workload, student misbehavior, limited time/resources, poor colleague relations. Use of proactive strategies did not produce and types of stress. Suggestive that the more reactive a teacher is the more stress the teacher will feel. Use of reactive management strategies and negative responses to student behaviors seem to have a strong relationship to decreased student on-task behaviors. The use of proactive strategies were not significantly associated with increased on-task behaviors. Significant association was present between positive teacher responses and increased on-task behavior. It is possible that by using correlation analysis it is possible that a decreasing of on-task behavior lead to a teacher becoming more reactive instead of the teacher continuing to use proactive strategies. Sampling bias may have existed. (Stressed teachers)
A small number of teachers participated in the observational portion of the study feeling as though their effectiveness as a teacher would be questioned.
No interdependent observer.
No reliability checks because of limited time and resources ( A must if study is replicated).
The study used primarily correlation analysis so no statement about causation can be made. Teacher self reported were reasonable reflection of class practice. But because the sample was so small and the novel approach to matching questionnaire and observation data, the research should be replicated. The study found minor misbehavior are a concern for primary teachers and that even though teachers feel good about using proactive strategies a lot of time is spent on behavior management.
The study also found that using reactive strategies has a psoitvie relationship woth teacher stress and inverse relationship with studnet on-task behavior. Further investigation would need to be conducted to examine burn-out of teachers. TOOT and HOC were reported as most troublesome behaviors. Mean on-task behavior for males was 70.26% and for females 73.87%. 47.4 % of teachers reported having to deal with behavior problems 5 or more times per day. Teachers reported they were more likely to use proactive classroom management strategies. Concerning student behaviors, teachers were observed to be more positive than negative in their responses to student behaviors- especially to academics in relation to the student's social behaviors.
84% of teachers felt confident about their ability to manage student behavior. 2.1% felt little confidence to manage the behavior of their students.
When asked how they would like to acquire knowledge about management techniques, teachers reported wanting to get advice from other teachers as the preferred method. As for stress- stress was classified into 5 groups- with workload and student misbehavior reported having the highest source of stress. Teachers in the study were moderately stressed. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine various teacher variable found proactive strategist, gender, qualifications and teaching experience was not significant predictors of stress. A significant positive relationship correlation was found between the negative social teacher responses and the reported use of reactive management strategies and between the observed overall positive teacher response and the proactive strategies. Significant negative correlations were found between the observed negative social teacher response and the reported use of proactive management strategies and between overall observed negative teacher response and reported use of proactive management strategies. Using a Pearson correlation showed significant negative correlation between the reported use of reactive management strategies and student on-task behavior. No significance occurred for the self- reported proactive management for on-task behaviors. Significant relationships were observed for positive academic responses and student on-task behavior, between observed positive social responses and student on-task behavior and between overall responses and on-task beahvior. A significant negative correlation was not found bewteen observed negative academic responses and studnet on-task behavior. Presented by India Eubanks and Susan Elder