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Conflict Diamonds Research & Presentation

by Fan Tu

Fan Tu

on 5 December 2012

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Transcript of Conflict Diamonds Research & Presentation

By Fan Tu Conflict Diamonds Research & Presentation RUF RUF, also stands for Revolutionary United Front, was a loosely organized force of a rebel army that fought a ten years civil war in Sierra Leone. It’s plan was to take control of lucrative diamond producing regions/areas of the country. The group funds comes mostly from extraction and sale of diamonds from southern and eastern areas controlled under Sierra Leone. This helped lead to a global campaign against so-called blood diamonds mined in conflict zones. End of the Sierra Civil War The Sierra Leone Civil War began in 1991 and officially ended in January of 2002. By early 2002 , some 72,000 ex-combatants had been disarmed and demobilized, although many still awaited re-integration assistance.On 18 January 2002 President Kabbah declared the civil war officially over. How the landscape of Sierra Leone changed as a result of mining for diamonds The ongoing lack of viable livelihood opportunities for rural populations is a serious issue in post-conflict Sierra Leone, and it has meant that many individuals and communities have no choice but to turn to gold or diamond mining as a source of income in their efforts to combine food security and generate revenue.
The extensive role of informal mining in Sierra Leone's rural economic landscape has become greatly pronounced due to the remarkable rise of diamond prices in recent times, and these dynamics have considerably shifted livelihood choices and opportunities. How do diamonds form? Diamonds are formed deep within the Earth about 100 miles or so below the surface in the upper mantle. They are formed thousands of years ago under extreme heat and pressure. This extreme heat and pressure in the earth transformed the carbon into crystals and turned it colorless. Although diamonds formed deep in the earth, volcanic activity is what brought them to the surface. Conflict Diamonds Ex-army corporal Foday Sankoh and his Revolutionary United Front took up arms against President Joseph Momoh. They committed crimes to Sierra people such as murder, rape, mutilation and recruiting child soldiers(10,000). The children were used to attack villages so that the R.U.F guards would not get killed. The main victim of this rebel movement is the vivillian population. Sierra Leone’s civil war destroyed infrastructure, businesses and the most basic social fabric of the society. Near the end of the war, the average citizen survived on the equivalent of 38 cents (US) a day, and 2 million people, nearly a third of the population, had been displaced People in Sierra Leone What led to the civil war in Sierra Leone? The major causes of the conflict are : The state’s institutional weakness after two decades of mismanagement and secondly the predatory action of external criminal militia organisations. The presense of diamonds was one of the reasons of this war, and also to overthrow the government. But the most important reason why the civil war should not be entirely attributed to conflict over the economic benefits incurred from the alluvial diamond mines is that the frustrations before war and grievances did not just concern that of the diamond sector. Poor governance, poverty, corruption and oppression 20 years ago created the circumstances for the rise of the RUF, as ordinary people yearned for change. Change of the country as a result of the civil war over conflict diamonds. Ten years after the end of a brutal civil conflict, Sierra Leone is now a peaceful and stable country. It has already had two successful elections for President, Parliament and Local Councils, including the 2007 elections where political power passed peacefully from one party to the other. The war led to strong economic rebound. Incomes rose, Sierra Leone has returned to democratic rule and stability, Post conflict economic progress has been robust, the government is improving and there are progress made in human development. Some of the emerge from the war are : partnerships, improvements in energy access, promotionss in education and health, private sector development, post-conflict recovery, supports in governance and decentralization and empower of vulnerable communities in remote rural areas. Works Cited
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