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History of the anglo-american Poetry

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Wilka Soares

on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of History of the anglo-american Poetry

450
1500
1950
4500 BCE
1800
History of the anglo-american Poetry
Ancient Poetry
Poetry appears among the earliest records of most literate cultures, with poetic fragments found on early monoliths, runestones and stelae.
Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor. Hieratic. 4500 BCE. & the Epic of Gilgamesh. In Cuneiform.
THE ANGLO-SAXON OR OLD-ENGLISH PERIOD
First Poetry: Beowulf (450-1050). Epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines, set in Scandinavia. By an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet.
The Age of Chaucer (14th century)
remarkable historically for the decline of feudalism (organized by the Normans), for the growth of the English national spirit during the wars with France, for the prominence of the House of Commons, and for the growing power of the laboring classes, who had heretofore been in a condition hardly above that of slavery.
Chaucer's work (Canterbury Tales); Langland, the poet and prophet of social reforms. (Piers Plowman); Wyclif,
the religious reformer, who first translated the
gospels into English;
Devotional tone.
The Age of Elizabeth
Renaissance. Age, of thought, feeling, and vigorous action: drama. Shakespeare.
Poetry marked by: variety, its freshness, its youthful and romantic feeling
Non-dramatic poets: Edmund Spenser (Shepherd's Calendar, 1579)
Plays: the first true English comedy, "Gammer Gurton's Needle," and the first tragedy, "Gorboduc".
Christopher Marlowe: the greatest of Shakespeare's predecessors. (Faustus)
Puritan Period
between 1625 and 1675. Puritan standards. John Milton: Puritan. Conflict. Moral and political revolution. Critical and intellectual period; it makes us think, rather than feel deeply.
Metaphysical Poets: Donne and Herbert
John Bunyan: "The Pilgrim's Progress"
Milton: "Paradise Lost" (1608-1674)
Contrast the hopefulness and vigor of Elizabethan writings: it saddens, rather than inspire us.
Eighteenth Century
age is remarkable for the rapid social development, which soon expressed itself in literature
complex: Classicism, the Revival of Romantic Poetry
Alexander Pope "Rape of the Lock and Other Poems"; Thomas Gray; Oliver Goldsmith; of William Blake
ballads
Age of Romanticism
1776 - Victoria; French Revolution
English writers produced so much excellent literature that the age is often called the Second Creative period
Wordsworth, Byron, and Shelley
Lyrical Ballads: Wordsworth, Coleridge, Scott, Byron, Shelley, and Keats;
Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey (800 - 675 BC) and the Indian Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Appear to have been composed in poetic form to aid memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Record historical events: epic. Lengthy and narrative.
Liturgical purposes: hymns, psalms, suras and hadiths. Inspirational tone.
Elegies and tragedy: To invoke deep internal emotional responses.
Gregorian chants: Formal or diplomatic speech.
Light-hearted nursery and nonsense rhymes.
Threnodies: to the deceased and even medical texts.
Purposes
Aristotle's Poetics describes the three genres of poetry: the epic, comic, and tragic.
develops rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry of each genre,
based on the underlying
purposes of that genre.
(Aristotle's poetics)
Lyric Poetry: poetic plays for
performance in their theatres.
"Forth from the fens, from the misty moorlands,
Grendel came gliding--God's wrath [5] he bore--
Came under clouds, until he saw clearly,
Glittering with gold plates, the mead hall of men.
Down fell the door, though fastened with fire bands;
Open it sprang at the stroke of his paw.
Swollen with rage burst in the bale-bringer;
Flamed in his eyes a fierce light, likest fire."
Its subjects were chiefly the sea and the plunging boats, battles, adventure, brave deeds, the glory of warriors, and the love of home.
love of freedom; responsiveness to nature, especially in her sterner moods; strong religious convictions, and a belief in Wyrd, or Fate; reverence for womanhood; and a devotion to glory as the ruling motive in every warrior's life.
Authors: Cædmon and Cynewulf
"The reward of sin is death." That's hard.
..."If we say that we have no sin,
We deceive ourselves, and there's no truth in us."
Why then belike we must sin,
And so consequently die.
Ay, we must die an everlasting death.
What doctrine call you this? Che sera, sera,
"What will be, shall be"? Divinity, adieu!
Biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden.
Purpose: to "justify the ways of God to men"
Modernist Poetry
After the World War II; Modernity has been going on for a long time;
Symbolist vein; Imagism;
T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Basil Bunting, Wallace Stevens, E.E. Cummings, W. B. Yeats;
Confessional poetry: in the work of Robert Lowell and Sylvia Plath
Beat Generation: rejection of received standards, innovations in style, experimentation with drugs, sexualities, Eastern religion, a rejection of materialism; Allen Ginsberg "Howl", Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs
References
History of Poetry: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10609/10609-h/10609-h.htm#chap3a
List of poet's pages: http://www.akoot.com/
History of Poetry & List of author's biography & Poems: http://www.poetrysoup.com/
Next class:
Bring the Poetry and historical background of your chosen Poet.
Full transcript