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Early Cinema Timeline

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Kettie Yu

on 2 August 2013

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Transcript of Early Cinema Timeline

Early Cinema Timeline
Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau develops and markets the Phenakistiscope
It was a spinning disk that was vertically attached to a handle
On a border around the disc's centre, there was a series of drawings
The user would spin the disc and look through the slit to see the disc's moving reflection in a mirror
1829 - Phenakistiscope
These devices had a concave mirror in front of a light source that gathers light, and then projected it through a slide with an image scanned onto it
They were first used with oil lamps, but then were produced using electrical lamps
17th Century - Magic Lantern
1827 - First Still Photograph
The very first photographic still was taken by Joeseph Niepce, a Frenchman, who worked with his brother in producing various experiments and inventions
The photo was produced by heliography, a plate glass technique
The photograph, The View From A Window at Le Grass took nearly 8 hours to expose
1834 - The Modern Zoetrope
The first Zoetrope was invented by the Chinese in 180AD
The modern Zoetrope, invented by William Horner, was very similar to the Phenakistiscope
However, instead of disks, the pictures and slots are combined in a rotating drum
By: Kettie Yu
1886 - Horse In Motion
Eadweard Muybridge, a San Francisco photographer, was hired by the California governor Leland Stanford to win a bet. The bet was that when a horse is galloping, all four legs are off the ground
Muybridge proved this by setting up seperate cameras, with shutters hooked up to tripe wires
1888 - Kodak
An American man called George Eastman invented the first Kodak camera, along with a dry, transparent and flexible photographic film that could be used in his invention.
1888 was the first year that the Kodak camera entered the market, with enough film for 100 exposures
It was designed to be a easily carried hand held camera that the average person could use
After the shots were taken, the whole camera would be returned to Kodak where the film was developed and printed
1888 - Kinetoscope
Together, Thomas A. Edison (the inventor of the electric light bulb and the phonograph) and William Dickson designed and invented a machine that made slow moving pictures
It was large box with a peephole while strips of images( with four holes on either side of the frame) were pulled past light, making an illusion of moving images
1890-91 - Fred Ott's Sneeze
Fred Ott's Sneeze was the very first whole film on record at the Library of Congress
It was shot with the Kinetograph and viewed in the Kinetoscope
1894 - Black Maria
The Edison Corporation (Edison and Dickson) built a studio on the grounds of Edison's laboratries in New Jersey
The purpose of the studio was to produce films for their kinetoscope
The first kinetoscope parlor opened at 1155 Broadway in New York City, for 25cents a screening
1894 - Cinematograph
Brothers, Louis and Auguste Lumiere, designed the first camera that could be used both as a recording device and a projecting device
It uses flexible film cut into wide strips, which was then hand cranked to play
The camera shot 16 frames per second (which was slower than Edison's 46 frames)
1896 - La Fee Aux Choux
Shot by the first woman filmmaker, French producer-director Alice Guy, this short film was considered to be the first fictional film
1895 - Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory
This was the brother's first film with shots of their workers leaving the factory
It was the shown in Paris on the 28th of December
1902 - A Trip To The Moon
Directed by Georges Melies, this French black-and-white silent film marks the first significant use of both narrative and special effects in a film
If shown at 16 frames a second, it runs for 14 minutes
1905 - Nickelodeon Movie Theatre
Harry Davis and John P. Harris created the first theater in the world that exclusively showed motion pictures
The theatre opened on the 19th of June, with each film being around 10-12 minutes long
The creators moved 96 empty seats into an empty store at 233 Smithfield Street
Cost of admission into the theatre was a nickel, and the Greek word for theatre is 'odeon', hence the name
1910 - Kinetophone
Thomas Edison invented Kinetophones, which were Kinetoscopes with phonographs inside their cabinets
A viewer would be able to look into the kinetoscope and watch the motiont picture while listening to the accompanying phonograph through the kinetophone
1906 - Humorous Phases of Funny Faces
James Stuart Blackton directed the very first silent animated film using stop-motion
It was released on April the 6th, 1906, with the film moving at 20 frames per second
1910 - Screen Credits
It was only in 1910 that actors in American films began to receive credit, marking the beginning and creation of film stars

1912 - Universal Pictures
Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley and Jules Brulatour organize Universal Pictures, the first major studio
To this day, it is now one of the six major movie studios
1914 - the Little Tramp
In this year, Charlie Chaplin plays the Little Tramp, which is his most famous character
Charlie Chaplin plays a childlike, good-hearted character, who behaves with the manners and dignity of a gentleman despite his actual social status
1915 - Bell & Howell 2709
The Bell & Howell 2709 movie camera was invented to allow directors to shoot close-ups without physically moving the camera
More information on how it works: http://provideocoalition.com/awilt/story/photos_the_bell_amp_howell_2709_and_the_canyon/
1919 - United Artist
Married couple, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford, along with Charlie Chaplin and D.W. Griffith establish United Artists
All actors wanted to control their own interests rather than depend on the powerful commercial studio, hence their own company
D.W. Griffith, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin (seated) and Douglas Fairbanks at the signing of the contract establishing United Artists motion picture studio in 1919
1916 - Mary Pickford Film Corporation
The Canadian born actress Mary Pickford created this corporation in Hollywood
She became the first movie star to form and own a film company
1923 - Warner Bros.
This film studio was founded by the Warner Brothers: Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack; hence the name
With Universal Pictures, it is now also another one of the major film studios
1929 - Academy Awards
The very first Oscars were held on the 16th of May, 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel and ran for 15 minutes
The awards were presented in front of a crowd of about 270 people, with the cost of tickets just $5
1928 - Paramount Talkies
Paramount became the first studio to announce that it will be producing talkies
1927 - The Jazz Singer
Warner Bros. presents the first movie with spoken words: The Jazz Singer
This marked the beginning of the Sound Era
The movie featured syncronized soundtracks on its musical numbers
1912 - Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures was first founded as Famous Players Film Company in 1912, but became Paramount Pictures in 1914
Founder Adolph Zukor, planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal especially to the middle class
It is now ranked as one of the largest movie studios
1923 - Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney company was founded by the two brothers, Walt and Roy Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio
This studio produced its very first cartoon, Alice in Wonderland, in 1923, featuring Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters
Famous Movie Stars and Directors
Rudolph Valentino
Born in Italy, he travelled to Hollywood on an adventure
He started working at a small cafe, where he was found and became an overnight star in The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921)
Other films he starred in include The Sheik (1921), Blood and Sand (1921) and Monsieur Beaucaire (1924)
Valentino was known as the exotic heart-throb, dubbed the 'Latin Lover' with his gleaming eyes
His young death at 31 was considered to be caused by a broken heart, causing mass hysteria at the time
D.W. Griffith
Best known for his epic film The Birth of a Nation (1915), Griffith was a premier pioneering American film director
He first worked as an actor and playwright, before directing films
In 1919, with Chaplin, Pickford and Fairbanks Sr., he helped to set up the United Artists
He also directed movies like Intolerance (1916) and Broken Blossoms (1919)
Buster Keaton
Born Joseph Frank Keaton, this famous actor was nicknamed Buster because of the way he tumbled down stairs uninjured when he was 6 months old
He was known as one of the three greatest silent comics, starring in films like The Play House (1921), Sherlock Jr (1924) and The General (1926)
Douglas Fairbanks Sr.
Mary Pickford
Known as 'American's Sweetheart' with the curls, Pickford became a significant figure in the development of film acting
Not only did she act, but along with Chaplin, Fairbanks and Griffith, set up United Artists and contributed enormously to the film industry
She starred in films like Coquette (1929), Poor Little Rich Girl (197) and My Best Girl (1927)
Erich Von Stroheim
Director Stroheim began woking in Holywood in 1914
His first role in a film was in The Country Boy (1915), but went uncredited
He is considered one of the greatest directors of the silent era, his films well known for representing the cynical and romantic views of human nature
He directed films like Blind Husbands (1919), The Devil's Pass Key (1920) and Foolish Wives (1922)
1902 - The Great Train Robbery
Edwin S. Porter shot The Great Train Robbery
This is the infamous sequence of a train racing towards the camera, causing viewers to believe that the train is really headed towards them
The short 12 minute film could be considered the first storytelling and Western film
1906 - The Story of the Kelly Gang
This Australian film told the story of the infamous outlaw and bushranger Ned Kelly
Written and directed by Charles Tait, the film ran more than an hour long
It was considered to be the longest narrative film seen in the world at that time
Charlie Chaplin
Chaplin grew up in a Dickensian working-class childhood in London
He became a star in 1924 as an inventive director/movie star in Hollywood
His trademark tramp persona - bowler hat, baggy trousers, outsize boots, moustache, funny walk - made him the most famous and richest man who ever lived
His most famous films included The Kid (1921), Modern Times (1936), City Lights (1931) and The Gold Rush (1925), all of which were directed by him
He was known for his develish, athletic character on screen, then switched to more of a hero, in movies like The Mark of Zorro (1920), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief of Bangdad (1924) and The Black Pirate (1926)
He and his second wife, Mary Pickford, joined with Charlie Chaplin and D.W. Griffith to create United Artists
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