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PKD Copy of alternative transportation energy
Transcript of PKD Copy of alternative transportation energy
ETHANOL ELECTRIC benefits
Biodiesel is biodegradeable, nonrenewable, and a non-toxic resource.
Compared to diesel, biodiesel reduces carbon emissions by 80%, carbon monoxide by 47%,
and sulfur oxide by 100%. Biodiesel has a higher flashpoint, making it more versatile where safety is concerned. Also, the cost of biodiesel will continue to decrease because of petroleum price increases. It is also able to work as a solvent,meaning that it can reduce residue as well as dissolving sediment.
sources for production
Biodiesel is a fuel made by chemically reacting alcohol with vegetable oils, animal fats, or greases. Also, it is made from organic compounds. The main source for production is from soybean oil. It is mostly found in blends of small amounts with pretroleum.
The Need Project (12-13, Infosheet) drawbacks
Biodiesel contains less energy per gallon than gasoline, thus making trips to th pump more routine.
Emissions of nitrogen oxides increase slightly by 10%. Over-farming biodiesel crops can result in topsoil erosion and creating new biodiesel farmland can result in the destruction of natural habitats.
To use biodiesel as a transportation fuel, it must be blended with petroleum. Petroleum is very harmful to the environment. Petroleum based fuels are burned in vehicle engines and produce particulates, as well as toxic and ozone forming emissions. If spilled onto the soil or into the water, they can cause long lasting damage to the environment. Petroleum based fuels are toxic and must be handled cautiously. Using Biodiesel increases the emissions of nitogen oxide by 10 % and therefore we must conserve it and not overuse it.
The Need Project (12-13, Infosheet)
Ethanol is biodegradeable and made from trees and plants. Ethanol also adds value to crops for farmers. Ethanol also increases the efficency of an engine and decreases residue. The use of ethanol creates a net energy gain of 67%. The production of ethanol therefore we get more energy using it than we use to create it. Ethanol is made from renewable crops grown in the United States and its use can reduce the need to import oil from foreign countries.
Electric cars do not require gasoline to run, which lessens our reliance on foregin oil. Also, by using electric cars, we will reduce toxic emissions.Electric cars are considered to withstand impact a lot better than most gasoline-powered vehicles, as the fluid filled batteries help to absorb most of the impact.
The Need Project (11) drawbacks
A large amount of pollutants caused by electric cars come from the electricity generated by coal-fired power plants. Research has shown that electric cars powered by dirty sources such as coal and oil, electric cars may actually create more of some pollutants than a gasoline-powered vehicle.
Like biodiesel, a gallon of ethanol contains less enrgy than a gallon of gasoline meaning that a gallon of it will not travel as far as a gallon of gas. Ethanol does not have nationwide distribution because E85 is only abundant in the Midwest, but limited in availability in other areas of the United States. Because ethanol is currently being mass produced the same as gasoline, the production of ethanol costs more than the production of gasoline. The more we produce ethanol, the greater the need for fertlizers and farms, therefore dead zones would most likely become more abundant.
sources for production
Ethanol is an alcohol fuel made by fermenting the sugars and starches found in plants. The most abundant source for production, but there also other sources for production. Any organic material containing cellulose, starch, or sugar can be made into ethanol.
The Need Project (13,14) sources for production
Electric vehicles are different from fossil fuel-powered vehicles in that electric cars' batteries can be powered by a wide range of sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear power, and renewable sources such as tidal power, solar power, and wind power.
http://www.eaaev.org/eaalinks.html pollution issues
The greatest pollution issue with ethanol is the increase of use could result in the indrease of dead zones. This is because ethanol is mainly produced on farms therefore there would be a major increase of over-enrichment of nutrients. Also, the increase of dead zones will cause greater death in fish which will result in money loss for fishermen.
The Need Project (13,14,15) pollution issues
The greatest pollution issue with the use of electric cars is the recycling of the battery. The batteries in these electric vehicles contain lead, therefore the recycling of them can emit a large release of lead which is harmful to our intake ofit through respiration. Also, electric cars may not produce pollution directly, but most of the pollution associated with their use is created at the power plants that provides the electricity that runs them.
The Need Project (10) CELLULOSIC ETHANOL Drawbacks
Currently, the cost for production is very high. Also, it takes more energy to produce cellulosic ethanol than we actually receive from using it. Another problem is that it is not easy ferment 5-carbon sugars, which limits ethanol production from cellulosic biomass.
Sources of Production
Cellulosic ethanol is made from the breaking down of lawn and tree maintenance byproducts such as of wood chips, farm wastes, and non food-like products. Unlike grain and sugar ethanol, cellulosic ethanol is produced from plants. Production of cellulosic ethanol has the advantage of more abundant and diverse raw material compared to sources like corn and cane sugars used in sugar and grain ethanol.
The major benefit is that cellulosic biomass is not a food source like corn and soybeans are. Cellulosic ethanol would not have this effect on the food market because it does not put pressure on a food source.
http://genomicscience.energy.gov/program/index.shtml Pollution Issues
Unlike the production of corn ethanol, the production of cellulosic ethanol does not cause dead zones. The overuse of plants and trees for production of cellulosic ethanol can lead to a depletion of oxygen in our environment.
http://medialab.blogs.com/our_ethanol_debate/2007/03/qa_a_cellulosic.html Alternative Transportation Fuels