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Cognitive & Metacognitive strategies in Writing Skills

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Hanieh Akbarimehr

on 19 February 2015

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Transcript of Cognitive & Metacognitive strategies in Writing Skills

Meta cognitive learning Strategies
involve thinking about how and why we are learning, examining the processes/strategies we use and deciding if these are effective (Hedge 2000). To further this idea we can say 'our meta cognitive knowledge base is composed of what we have learned through experience about cognitive activities' (Flavell 1985) Good learners are those with ample meta cognitive knowledge:

about self as learner
about nature of cognitive task at hand
about appropriate use of strategies to achieve goals

The Cognitive Process of Writing
Cognitive Strategies used in Writing
Suggested by Wenden (1991)
1. Clarification-
• Self question
• Hypothesizing
• Defining Terms
• Comparing

2. Retrieval-
• Reread aloud or silently what has been written
• Writing a lead in word or expression
• Rereading the assigned question
• Self questioning
• Writing until an idea comes
• Summarizing what has just been written
• Thinking in one's native language

Definition of cognitive and
meta cognitive learning strategies

Cognitive learning Strategies
are the thought processes used directly in learning which enable the learner to deal with the information presented in tasks they are engaged in by working on it in different ways (Hedge 2000).

Cognitive & Metacognitive strategies in Writing Skills
Prepared by:

Veronica Byrne
Hanieh Akbarimehr
Ahmad Jan

The aim of this presentation is to help teachers to...
understand the meaning of cognitive and meta cognitive learning strategies

how cognitive and meta-cognitive learning strategies are employed in the writing process

technology that assists the development of the writing process
Meta cognitive Strategies used in Writing

thinking aloud- reporting on anything they are thinking while they perform the task
considering purpose and audience
consulting background knowledge
understanding that a writing plan is not linear
Rereading and critiquing what is written

Wenden (1991) described the meta cognitive strategies used in writing as: Planning, Evaluating and Monitoring.

Technology that assists the writing process- online sites dedicated to improving writing skills


An introduction to Bubbl.us
This is a website that can help students brainstorm and organize their work.
They can upload files and links that will aid their research of the topic they are working on. So they can use cognitive writing strategies when planning, and having the information in this format allows the student to manipulate, reorder and revise what they have written.
3. Resourcing-
• Asking researcher
• Referring to a dictionary

4. Deferral
5. Avoidance
6. Verification
Further Clarification of the cognitive strategies used in the writing process can be explored in the following diagram


Congjun, M. 2005. 'A Taxonomy of ESL Writing Strategies. In Proceedings Redesigning Pedagogy: Research, Policy, Practice.' pp 1-10, Singapore.

Flavell, J.H. 1985. 'Cognitive Development' (2nd ed.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hedge, T. 2000. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wenden, A.L. 1991. 'Metacognitive Strategies in L2 Writing: A Case for Task Knowledge. In J.E. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Language and Linguistics, 1991, pp302-322, Washington D.C. Georgetown University Press.

Image 2 taken from - http://nancymcneal.blogspot.ae/2012/10/metacognition-priceless.html
Image 3 taken from - http://teaching.unsw.edu.au/assessing-extended-writing
Image 4 taken from - http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/metacognitive-strategies-definition-examples-quiz.html#lesso

Thank you!
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