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Transcript of CONFLICT


Conflict arises through a difference of opinion or understanding; historically, claims over scarce resources such as food, water, land, shade, tools and materials have led to conflict. If unresolved, conflict can escalate, with war being an extreme form.

Conflict is present in all aspects of modern life; workplaces, relationships, across cultures, in politics, between specific personalities as well as ones personal inner conflict. As society has evolved, we have a greater understanding of recognising conflict, the triggers and forms in which it presents. In addition, society has developed effective prevention and conflict resolution strategies to complement specific forms of conflict.

When conflict is understood and the process of resolution is embraced, results and relationships are improved.
Types of Conflict
What is Workplace Conflict
Workplace Conflict Resolution
What is Relationship Conflict
Relationship Conflict Resolution
What is Cross-Cultural Conflict
Cross-Cultural Conflict Resolution
What is Political Conflict
Political Conflict Resolution
What is Inner Conflict
Inner Conflict Resolution
What is Personality conflict ?
COM10003 Learning & Communicating Online
Group 19 Team 2
September 2015

Workplace conflict refers to conflict that occurs in the workplace, usually between staff or between staff and management.

Fralix (2007) suggests there are two types of workplace conflict, covert and overt, and that conflict occurs as a result of different perspectives, expectations, beliefs, values and other information.

Covert conflict behaviour includes ignoring and avoidance; when people have differences yet they don't discuss them openly (Fralix, 2007), whereas, overt conflict is when a confrontation or open disagreement about an issue occurs.

Blackard (2001) advocates that conflict in the workplace is normal and healthy and fosters creativity and growth; however if not managed or addressed effectively can become counterproductive.

An effective dispute resolution system addresses root causes such as systems problems, cultural differences, lack of trust, or poor communications, and thereby reduces the number of disputes and the need for third party involvement (Blackard, 2001)

Allen, 2011
Kemp-Longmore (2000) emphasizes the importance of having an accessible grievance policy, statement of commitment to diversity and visible equal opportunity practices within the organisation.

At the personal level, communication is the key to conflict resolution (Kemp-Longmore, 2000). Responding using eye contact and body language will reassure the person you are listening, adjusting your communication style to match, as well as documenting the process and being willing to compromise or move on.

“When conflict is understood and managed effectively, results and relationships are improved (Fralix, 2007)."

Allen S 2011, ‘Women Screaming in Phone’ [image], American Express Open Forum, American Express, Viewed 15 August 2015, <https://www.americanexpress.com/us/small-business/openforum/articles/3-steps-to-managing-workplace-conflict-with-emotional-intelligence/>.

Anwar M ,Shahzad K & Ijaz-ul-Rehman Q , 2012, Managing conflicts through personality management, vol 6. pp. 3725-3732 viewed 24 August 2015 <http://www.academia.edu/3185298/Managing_conflicts_through_personality_management

Blackard, K 2001, ‘Assessing Workplace Conflict Resolution Options’, Dispute Resolution Journal, Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 57-62. viewed 12 August 2015 <http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=68288e8d-47c2-4f46-8b8e-cd9794587dc6%40sessionmgr4004&vid=1&hid=4114>.

Canary, DJ, Cupach, WR, & Messman, SJ 1995, ‘The nature of conflict in close relationships’, in Relationship conflict: Conflict in parent-child, friendship, and romantic relationships, Sage series on close relationships, SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 1-22, viewed 23 August 2015, doi: <http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243795.n1.>

Cloyd, Tom, MS MA (2013) Resolving Psychological Conflict Through Inner Dialog viewed 28 August 2015 <http://www.tomcloyd.com/lib_iudb06402_resolvingPsychConflict.html>

cross cultural image-2009, Depositphotos, Inc. USA,choose to resolve conflict [image],deposit phtots,viewed 29 August 2015, http://depositphotos.com/7653843/stock-photo-choose-to-resolve-or-continue.html

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Conis Research Institute, 2015, The Heidelberg Conflict Model. Information Retrieved from
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Kendra, C , 2010, The Everything Psychology Book, viewed, 15 August 2015 ,p 177-190

Fralix, P 2007, ‘How to prevent and resolve conflicts in the workplace’, New Hampshire Business Review, Vol.29, No. 2, p.24. viewed 12 August 2015 <http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ps/i.do?ty=as&v=2.1&u=swinburne1&it=search&s=RELEVANCE&p=ITOF&qt=TI~How%20to%20prevent~~SP~24~~IU~2~~SN~0164-8152~~VO~29&lm=DA~120070000&sw=w>.

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Haywood Katy, O'Donnell Catherine, 2011, Politicl Conflict and Conflict Resolution: Debatin Peacein Northern Ireland, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.

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Helpguide.org , 2015 , Managing and resolving conflict, viewed 28 August 2015,

Kemp-Longmore, C 2000, ‘Conflict resolution in the Workplace’, The Black Collegian, Second Semester, Super Issue, pp.131-133. Viewed 15 August 2015 < http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ps/retrieve.do?sort=RELEVANCE&docType=Article&tabID=T003&prodId=AONE&searchId=R2&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm&contentSegment=&currentPosition=1&searchResultsType=SingleTab&inPS=true&userGroupName=swinburne1&docId=GALE%7CA63835197&contentSet=GALE%7CA63835197>.

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Poovaiah, 2015
Poovaiah, 2015
Poovaiah, 2015
Poovaiah, 2015
Poovaiah, 2015
Gopixdatabase.com Inc, 2015
Any person who has a relationship with another is going to face conflict of some type; it is an inescapable part of human relations.

“A relationship conflict is an argument, disagreement, controversy or practical dialog that happens between two people within a relationship.” (Helena Cain. N.D).

Every relationship goes through some kind of conflict, this could be; Parent and child, friends, siblings, or a romantic relationship. Conflict on the surface level in close, personal relationships reflects subsurface difficulties in how two highly interdependent people negotiate their rights, responsibilities, and assessments of each other. As interdependence increases, potential areas for conflict increase." (Braiker & Kelley, cited in Canary, Cupach & Messman 1995, p. 3). Conflict can be good for relationships, as it helps to create stronger bonds with each other.
Personality conflict is defined as the conflicted traits, reactions, beliefs, characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character that may differ from another.
Personality Conflict Resolution can occur when we understand the five main types of personalities we are dealing with. (Thomas- Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, 1974)

1. Competitive: People will generally take a firm stand, they operate from a position of power and will generally sacrifice another’s goals or beliefs for their own benefit.

2. Accommodating: A style that indicates a willingness to meet the needs of other people at the expense of their own needs.

3. Collaborative: This style will meet the needs of all involved, is a combination of assertive and collaborative, very effective when bringing a variety of views together.
Cross cultural conflict is and can occur when there is a misunderstanding or issued caused by:
Cultural values and beliefs
Language barrier

Cross-cultural conflict can occur in any environment including the workplace, schools or society in general, particularly as we are a diverse and multi-cultural society.

Conflict resolution skills may be a key indicator of successful romantic relationships.

(Neff & Karney, 2007).
According to the Heidelberg Conflict Model (2014), a political conflict is a positional difference regarding values relevant to a society.

The conflict items - between at least two decisive and directly involved actors, which is being carried out using observable and interrelated conflict means that lie beyond established regulatory procedures and threaten a core state function or the order of international law, or hold out the prospect to do so (HIIK, 2013).
As a defined field of study, conflict resolution started in the 1950´s and 1960´s. This was the height of the Cold War, when the development of nuclear weapons and the conflict between superpowers seemed to threaten human survival. A group of pioneers from disciplines saw the value of studying conflict as a general phenomenon (Ramsbotham et al, 2011).
Throughout her 2010 paper, Katy Haywood explores that, conflict resolution is not a goal nor indeed a tightrope, establishing lasting patterns of peaceful interaction and `normalised´ channels of trust and legitimacy must ultimately be an inclusive and continually evolving process.

One of the few unimpeachable principles of political conflict resolution is that it must incorporate all society, not just those with political influence or acumen.

To borrow a cliché, what Haywood wishes to demonstrate is that it is not the destination but the journey that is important in the process of political conflict resolution.
The success of the relationship depends on how someone reacts to the conflict. When resolving conflict there are some key points to keep in mind that will help to make a peaceful resolution:
Listen to your partner with an open heart;
Make conflict resolution the priority;
Be respectful and don’t use abusive words;
Accept and cherish your partner for who he or she is;
give your partner the benefit of the doubt;
recognise if your partner is exhausted or distracted;
begin and end the discussion by asserting that you care for your partner;
Find out what's right, not who is right;
Be the first to say sorry when resolving conflict;
Never go to bed angry, stay up and talk about it.

4. Compromising: Is a style based on finding a solution that will partially satisfy everyone, some would say it is taking the middle ground.

5. Avoiding: This style tends to avoid conflict entirely.

To be able to manage conflict various techniques can be applied to remove the conflict or if not to understand better for a resolution to occur these include going into discussions with an open mind, stay calm, be respectful, focus on the issue at hand and not the emotions, listen to what is being said, discuss with clear communication, have a willingness to forgive and above all make it a priority to resolve the difference.
Personality Conflict Resolution
Conflict is a natural and healthy process which arises through difference; predominantly difference in opinion or expectations. Conflict is found in the workplace, in relationships, across cultures, in political circles, between clashing personalities, as well as one’s own inner conflict. Conflict resolution is a process that encourages and enables conflict issues to be understood and steps taken to address any grievance. When parties actively participate, this process enables people to grow and strengthen relationships and communication.
Image source: http://www.scienceofrelationships.com/home/tag/conflict-resolution
Image source: conflict resolution images, n.d.,viewed 15/08/15.
Any resolution to a conflict always has a reason.

To gain a resolution you must first identify if the conflict is culturally related.

All parties involved must want or have a desire to work it out.

Talk to the other person involved in the conflict, try to work the issue out between those parties. If this cannot be done, seek help from an uninvolved third party, whom can mediate a discussion towards resolution.

Try to help each party understand how and why this conflict has occurred.

The mediator should acknowledge what is said and actively listen.

Encourage mutual respect and build from common ground, if why the conflict occurred is harder to overcome.

A resolution is when both parties are able to communicate openly and constructively to resolve the issue.

It also is about cultural awareness and diversity, is being open minded and respectful to a person as human being.
Inner Conflict usually involves moral decision making, making the choice between two undesirable alternatives (Murray, 2009). It also can involve making the choice between two desirable alternatives.

Inner Conflict can also involve conflict arising from the ‘little voice’ inside your head. It can involve conflict about appearances, inner thoughts and even a decision about what you want to wear or what you wish to do.

Inner conflict can cause distress which may lead to physical health problems as well as lead to a dissatisfaction with life.

When our desires are clear and coherent, we are free to assess personal and environmental resources, craft a plan of action for satisfying our desires, and act to achieve satisfaction (Cloyd, 2009).

In literature and movies we see the inner conflict revealed in the characters monologues such as Gollum for the Lord of the Rings and Hamlet in Shakespeare's Hamlet.

The video of Gollum is a monologue about his decision to take the 'precious'. It is a two sided monologue between his good side and his bad side. In the clip the viewer can clearly see the two sides in conflict with each other.

Take time out: find a quite spot to relax
Do something you enjoy
Participate in a sport or exercise
Positive thinking: place positive notes on a mirror or around your house to remind you to be positive
Write down your thoughts
Weigh up options and consequences
Acknowledge you inner voice
Open your mind to others and the world around you
Image source:https://theoceanofknowledge.wordpress.com/2014/04/07/cognitive-dissonance-the-torments-of-internal-conflict/
Image source:https://theodysseyonline.com/author/ellen-jaudon
Ruth Jackman
Tariq Chowdhury
Kiah Roberston
Poovaiah, 2015
Alison Ible
Kate Ranson
Jennifer Williams
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