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VERBALS

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by

Ms. Tees

on 11 September 2013

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Transcript of VERBALS

VERBALS

Participles
A participle is a verb or verb phrase that functions as an adjective (modifies a noun/pronoun).
Infinitives
Verb form, usually preceded by "to", that functions as a noun (most common - 4 functions), an adjective, or an adverb.
Verb forms or phrases used as
other parts of speech (Adjective/Noun)

Endings
Most Common:
- ing, - ed

Others:
- d, - en, - n, - t
Mark Up
Underline/Circle/Bracket Participle or Participle Phrases & Draw an Arrow to the noun/pronoun the participle modifies
Example:


Noted for her beauty, Venus was

sought by all the gods as a wife.
Hints
Sentence MUST have an acting verb (so, 2 verbs must be present).

If a sentence begins with a participle ending (-ing, -ed, -d, -en, -n, -t) and is separated with a comma -- this is a PARTICIPLE
Let's Practice!
Gerunds
A verb form that acts as a noun.

Functions:
Subject
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Predicate Nominative/Noun
Appositive
Object of the Preposition
Subject
The subject of a sentence is the noun/pronoun that is doing the action of the verb.
NEVER separated from the verb with a comma.
Direct Object
A noun or pronoun that receives the action of its verb.
Indirect Object
A noun or pronoun that indirectly receives, or is affected by, the action of a verb
Predicate Nominative/Noun
A noun or pronoun that comes after a LINKING verb (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) and renames or identifies the subject.
Appositive
A noun or pronoun that comes directly after another noun or pronoun and renames that noun or pronoun.
Object of the Preposition
Locators in time and space -
A noun or pronoun that appears at the end of a prepositional phrase. The preposition connects it to the rest of the sentence.
G-S
[ Swimming ] is excellent exercise.
Mark Up
Underline/Circle/Bracket gerund or gerund phrase and label its function.
NO ARROWS

Example:

[ Eating ] is awesome.
G-S
Hint: Starts the sentence - phrase goes all the way to the verb
G-DO
She ran away [ crying ].
Follows an ACTION verb.
Hint: "GAVE" - There will also be a DO in a sentence
G-IO DO
She gave [parasailing] a try.
G-PN
Her life's ambition is [ painting a masterpiece ].
Hint: Separated by commas - Noun it follows can NOT be a person or animal
G-App
His favouite pastime, [ playing golf ], bores me to tears.
Prepositions
about
above
across
after
against
along
amoung
around
at
before
beneath
beside
between
beyond
but by despite
down
during
except
for
from
in
inside
into
like
near
off
of
on
onto
out
outside
over
past
since
through
throughout
til
to towards
under
underneath
until
up upon
with
within
without
Noun Function
Receives the action.
4 Functions of a Noun:
Subject
Direct Object
Predicate Nominative/Noun
Object of the Preposition
Adjective Function
Describes/Modifies a Noun
Adverb Function
Modifies a verb, adjective,
or another adverb
Hint: to [verb] + modifiers = infinitive phrase
Examples:
to walk, to give, to enjoy,to hit
to swim, to stomp, to take, to cry
ETC.
Example
[To learn Russian quickly] is difficult.
Subj

Al wanted [to buy the car immediately.]
DO

Joyce's big dream is [to visit Disneyland.]
PN

Melony was not about [to stop now.]
OP
Example
Ruby told him the castles [to see in England.]
Adj

The attempt [to demolish the school] failed.
Adj
Example
Maureen went [to visit her mother yesterday.]
Adv

[To understand the problem completely], Caitlin asked a question.
Adv
Questions to ask:
Which ones?
What kind?
Mark Up
Noun: Underline/Bracket and label with function (like gerunds).

Adverb/Adjective: Underline/Bracket and draw arrow to what the infinitive is modifying (like participles).
Hint
To... ,
Questions to ask:
How, Where, Why?
To what extent?
Under what conditions?
There can be any number and any combination of verbals in a sentence.
The [screaming] teenager annoyed his [already irritated] mother who was

tired of [listening to the complaining.]
G-OP

The girl [working the cash register] plans [to go to Maine.]
G-App Adj
Hint
Always follows directly after the noun it modifies.
Full transcript