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Radioisotopes in Medicine

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by

Grace Pierce

on 1 October 2014

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Transcript of Radioisotopes in Medicine

Radioisotopes in Medicine
Diagnostic
Therapeutic
CT scan
A PET scan
MPI scan
What are radioisotopes and how are they used in medicine?
Radioisotopes are atoms with an unstable combination of neutrons and protons
which then results in the emission of radiation. Ex: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays
In medicine they are used to provide information about a person's body
and their organs, and in some cases, to treat diseased organs.

"Radioisotopes in Medicine." World Nuclear Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.


This shows how radioisotopes are used in scans to discover the effects of treatments.
Contaminated medical instruments
Because of these treatments, waste collects on the instruments used. All of these tools used still contain small amounts of radiation and have to be properly disposed of.
They are put into a decay storage for periods of months to years until being disposed of at urban land fill sites.
Affects on Humans: Pros and Cons
Pros
Nuclear medicine
can diagnose several diseases
Said to be the most
effective treatment for all kinds of cancerous diseases
and conditions.
The x-rays of nuclear medicine can s
can the most sensitive parts of the body


History of Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear Medicine was developed in the 1950s
by doctors whom initially had an endocrine emphasis
They used iodine-131 to diagnose and treat thyroid disease
This led to CT/PET scans

Radioisotopes and other materials are combined to form radioactive pharmaceuticals
Radioactive pharmaceuticals are drugs for the use of both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Common Medical Radioisotopes
Cesium-137 Used to treat cancerous tumors

Cobalt-60 Used to sterilize medical instruments

Gallium-67 Used in medical diagnosis

Iodine-129 Used to threat thyroid disorder

Strontium-85 Used to study bone formation and metabolism

Technetium-99m Most widely used in Nuclear Medicine. For diagnostic studies.

Uranium-234 Used in dental fixtures like crowns.

Fun Fact:
**Californium-252 is used to inspect airline luggage for hidden explosives.**
Radioactive pharmaceuticals are used to

examine organs
such as the blood flow to the brain, assessment of bone growth, and predict the effects of surgery.
During this process, the patient receives a certain amount of radioactive material

which collects
in the specified organ. It then
emits gamma rays which will then be detected by the scan.
Examples of these tests: CT Scan, PET( Positron emission tomography) , and MPI(Myocardial Perfusion Imaging).
Radioactive pharmaceuticals are used to destroy or weaken mutated cells
via radiation
Beta radiation is emitted which results in the destruction of damaged cells
The radioactive pharmaceuticals may be put into a vein, taken by mouth, or placed in a body cavity.
For example: P-32 was given into a vein (as an IV) as a common treatment for a blood disease called Polycythemia Vera
Cons

Users should use caution and wear proper protective gear (ie. lead vests used by x-ray technicians) to protect from radioactive rays.
Nuclear medicine requires
a huge amount of investment.
Its facilities are very expensive.
"Nuclear Medicines and Radioisotopes." - ANSTO. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
Sources:
Full transcript