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Neural Systems and The Brain GP 3 & 4

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by

G. E. Kawika Allen, Ph.D.

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Neural Systems and The Brain GP 3 & 4

Neural Systems and The Brain Neurons Dendrites Axons Synapes A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.

Each consists of a cell body and its branching fibers. The neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body The neuron’s extension that passes messages through its branching terminal fibers that form junctions with other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.


The tiny gap at this junction is where firing connections occur. This is the main foundation upon which all human skills are programmed, such as push-ups, composing symphonies, solving problems in math, etc. Neural System The Brain Brain Regional Lobes The site of every conscious perception, action, and thought


10 times larger than a Monkey’s and 100 times larger than a rat’s


The fastest growth occurs after birth. Why?


First 2 years the brain grows from 25% to 75% of its final weight Chemical messages that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.

Neurotransmitters have a direct influence on our behaviors and emotions, and have also been linked to:
hunger
thinking
depression
euphoria
addictions
therapy Movement
Decision-making
Problem-solving
Planning Cognition
Information Processing
Pain and Touch Sensation
Spatial Orientation
Speech
Visual Perception Visual Perception
Color Recognition Recognizing and processing sound
Understanding and producing speech
Various aspects of memory breathing
heart rate
blood pressure
swallowing balance
movement
coordination

The cerebellum also allows us to:

stand upright
keep our balance
move around Plasticity – the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. Neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons. Corpus Callosum – the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
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