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Oliver Cromwell - Lord and Protector
Transcript of Oliver Cromwell - Lord and Protector
Lord and Protector
25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658
English Civil War
born on 25 April 1599 in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire into a family of minor gentry
became member of parliament for Huntingdon in the parliament of 1628 - 1629
experienced a religious crisis in 1630s
began to make his name as a radical Puritan
Pretty unremarkable for the first forty years of his life.
Time served in parliament, and Puritan convinction would shape his actions as Lord Protector
Actually an insult
So named because of tendency to cut hair
Originally an insult
However taken as a point of pride
Shorter than the Cavaliers, but still a lot longer then usual today
Supported Charles I
Not originally against having kings...
...but did believe that kings should be bound by constitution
Civil War Breaks out!
Oliver Cromwell was, rather obviously a parliamentarian
In 1642 war declared between Charles I and Parliament
During this time Cromwell rises to prominence
No prior military experience
Ends up leading superb cavalry "the Ironsides"
Cavalry's excellence comes from moral and religious discipline
Captain's were often Puritans, promoted by Cromwell himself
First battle was Edgehill
No real winner
King's forces finally crushed at Naseby in 1645
King then allied with the Scot's, promptly defeated
Civil War breaks out again!
Second Civil War convinces Cromwell King need to die.
There is a trial, the king is beheaded
Parliamentarians, with Cromwell at their head, are victorious
After a a win against the king's son, Charles II, at Worcester in 1651
Cromwell, frustrated by the lack of progress of parliament, dissolves it
Rules as virtual dictator, as Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth
Power secured through military
As Lord Protector, imposes strict Puritan rules
Banned sports, theater, music and Christmas
Mostly only on Sundays
Refused the offer of the crown in 1657
Likely out of religious conviction, possibly out of belief for republic
reorganized the national church
readmitted Jews into Britain
presided over a certain degree of religious tolerance
ended the war with Portugal (1653)
allied with France against Spain
defeated the Spanish at Battle of the Dunes (1658)
and Holland (1654)
Died 3 September 1658
Buried with a regal 60 000 pound funeral
At death, Cromwell, and 11 appointed major-generals were hated men
Position of Lord Protector not hereditary
But Cromwell chose his son, Richard, as his successor
Richard quickly gave up his position
Charles II welcomed backed into England as king
Cromwell's body exhumed, ceremonially hung, and head stuck on a poll and displayed in London
For much time afterword, Cromwell remained a despicable figure
In 1800, saw a resurgence as a Hero of freedom against a tyrannical King.
Now a fairly beloved character in England's past
Though the Irish HATE him
And scholars still debate whether he was the devil incarnate, a deluded fanatic, a hero or man of God
Mainly for Cromwell's attempt to tame them, via systematically slaughtering them