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Photography

Photography Workshop 1
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ProTech Media Centre

on 23 April 2010

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Transcript of Photography

Canon Rebel XSi Introduction Photography After completing this workshop, you will have an understanding of how a camera works. You will learn the main functions of how to operate a Canon Rebel XSi and how to control the most used functions of the camera. Most people know how to operate a camera. Point it at your subject and click the shutter button. That is why regular style digital cameras are called ‘Point and Shoot’ cameras. These cameras are great for what they were designed for. A simple camera that takes pictures, which is what most people are looking for.

This is also the reason why most people pictures look flat and boring. The cameras aren’t capable of taking a wide range of photos, and the operators of the cameras either don’t care, or even know about what they are missing out on. If you want more control of your camera and want to take way better photos, you need a D-SLR cameras (Digital Single Light Reflex) at your disposal. Put in the DVD
Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D From the chapter selection menu, click on Your Approach. When the DVD gets to "Learning from a Pro" section, return to the main menu. (0:10:00) (0:11:50) The video clip shows how the process of shooting with an SLR vs a Point and Shoot is different. You need to think about what you want to achieve, and then do the necessary steps to achieve it. In order to understand how to take a good photo, you first need to know how a camera functions, what it's parts do, and how it affects the photo. By knowing all of this, you will know how to change the settings of the camera for each situation. One of the biggest differences of how a Point and Shoot functions vs how a SLR functions is how you view the images before the photo is taken.

With a point and shoot, the outside light enters the lens and then is focused on the image sensor. The LCD display on the back of the camera then shows what the images sensor picks up.

In a SLR, the outside light enters the lens and then hits a mirror which redirects the light to the view finder. In an SLR, you are physically seeing exactly what light is entering the camera. When you take the photo, the mirror drops down and the light hits the image sensor. The disadvantage of the LCD screen on point and shoot's is that the LCD monitor may not show the correct colours, lighting, or quality of the future photo. In an SLR, the advantage you have is that if you can see it with your own eye, you can see it through the viewfinder. The diagram to the right shows a cut-away of a SLR camera. The dotted line shows the light. The light enters the Lens Assembly (1) and then hits the Mirror (2), which is in the down position. The light is directed up towards the Focusing Screen (5) as well as the Condensing Lens (6) and the Pentaprism (7). The Focusing Screen helps focus the image. The Condensing Lens and the Pentaprism reflect and rotate the image so that when it exits the Viewfinder (8) it is the right way up. When your press the shutter button on the camera to take a picture, the Mirror (2) drops down and lets the light head directly towards the Sensor (4). Before the light gets to the Sensor, the Focal-plane¬ shutter (3) blocks the path of the light. Depending on the settings of the camera, the shutter will open and close at a certain speed to expose the sensor to the light. Usually, if not much light is around, the shutter will move slowly. If there is a lot of light, the shutter will move fast. 1.Lens assembly
2.Mirror (in down position)
3.Focal-plane shutter
4.Sensor
5.Focusing screen
6.Condensing lens
7.Pentaprism
8. Viewfinder Above is a cutaway of a SLR camera.
You can compare the two diagram to the photo and see how the parts look and where they are located. So now you have a general idea of how the light moves through the camera. The process involves a bit more, but for now this explanation works. On to the next step..... Let’s take a look at the camera. The camera is a Canon Rebel XSi (referred to as the Canon 450D in some countries). Let’s test out what you just learned about how the camera redirects the light. Remove the lens cap by squeezing on the two tabs on each side of the Canon logo. Do Not turn on the camera yet. Take a look through the Viewfinder on the back of the camera. Even with the camera turned on, you can still see. That’s because for the light to pass through to the viewfinder, there is no electronics involved. So you don’t even need power to preview a shot. SLR cameras zoom function is controlled manually by the user, instead of with buttons like on a Point and Shoot. Hold onto the camera and rotate the large centre section of the lens. You’ll notice that the length of the lens changes when you rotate it. Now, look through the Viewfinder while you rotate the lens. The zoom amount changes. So you can zoom without battery power too! The lens that comes with this camera is an 18-55mm IS lens. You should see these numbers on the part of the lens that you were rotating. This refers to field of view (or angle of view) of the lens, or in simple terms, how zoomed in or out you are. Look at the back of the camera. There is a lot of buttons compared to what you may be used to. We will look at each of the buttons one at a time. One main difference is the colours of the icons for the buttons. If the icon is white, then that button is used during photo mode.
If the icon is blue, then that button is used during review mode.
If the button has both a white and blue icon, it has a different function depending on which mode you are in.
Return to the DVD
(0:24:53) (0:22:44) From the chapter selection menu, click on Let’s Get Focused. When DVD gets to Manually Focusing the Lens section, PAUSE the DVD. Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D Let’s try out some of the focus settings you just watched in the video. Put the camera to Program mode. It’s the P on the Mode dial. Make sure that the AF/MF switch on the left side of the lens is set to AF (Auto Focus). Now, depress the shutter release button halfway. If you depress it fully it will take a picture, we aren’t at that step yet. AF/MF switch When the camera focuses in AF mode, it looks at the AF points and chooses which point it should set in focus. Whichever points flash RED are the points the camera has choses to focus on. By pressing the shutter release halfway, the camera will look at the scene and adjust the camera settings to take a good picture. One of these settings, is Auto Focus. Make sure that the camera AF points are set to all 9 AF points. To reset to all 9, press the AF Point Select button, and then press the Set button twice. 1. Move your camera around and point your camera at different objects that are near or far away. Look for something that looks blurry.
2. Press the shutter release halfway and see if the camera focuses on your object.
3. Try changing the zoom amount and see how the focus changes.
Right now you’re relying on the camera to choose what to focus on. Let’s try setting a the camera to only use a specific AF point. 1. Press the AF Point Select button and then use the arrow buttons or the dial to switch through the different points.

2. Choose a point (that isn’t the centre) and then move around seeing how the camera focuses on different things.

3. You can also change the AF Point Selection by looking through the Viewfinder as well.
Dial AF Point Select Sometimes, you may want to use Manual Focus. (0:24:53) Unpause the DVD and watch how to manually focus the camera. PAUSE the DVD at Creative Zone Exposure Modes: Tv Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D (0:26:00) Return to the DVD
The lens on your camera is different than the one shown in the video. The Focus Ring for your lens is right at the end of the lens, the part that extends when you change the zoom. Move your camera around and try the steps to manually focus your camera. You may not use this function that often but it is something that is good to learn. 1. Find something you want to focus on

2. Adjust the focus ring to get a close focus.

3. Hold the shutter release halfway down and see if any of the AF points flash.

4. If you adjust the focus, you’ll notice that if something comes into focus on a AF point, the AF point will flash red. If you have selected a specific AF point, the camera will still be looking for this point only. Switch back to all AF points for the most options.
So now you know how the camera focuses on different things. The next step will be controlling the Shutter Speed. First step is to understand how the shutter works. The shutter is made up of two curtains. These are usually flat, metal plates. In the image to the right, the dashed box is the sensor, the red box is the first curtain and the green box is the second curtain. Before you take a picture (Fig 1), the first curtain is covering the sensor, and the second curtain is sitting next to it. When you take a picture (Fig 2) the first curtain moves out of the way to expose the sensor. After a set amount of time (the Shutter Speed) the second curtain will cover the sensor. (Fig 3). Every camera has what’s called the Sync Speed (or X sync). This is the Shutter Speed number in which the second curtain will not move until the first curtain has completely open. In the Rebel XSi, this number is 1/200 seconds. Anything slower than that will look like the first diagram. Anything faster will look like the diagram to the right. In this diagram, the second curtain will begin moving when the first curtain is still moving across, exposing the sensor with the gap between the curtains. The faster the shutter speed, the smaller the gap. Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D Unpause the DVD.
PAUSE the DVD when it tells you, as well the end of each section if necessary and at finally at Creative Zone Exposure Modes: Av
(0:32:28) (0:26:00) Return to the DVD
Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D Set your camera to Tv mode and try adjusting the Shutter Speed. There are two ways to view the shutter speed. You can look at the LCD screen like is shown in the video, or you can change it while looking through the viewfinder. 1. Press the shutter release halfway. At the bottom of the viewfinder you should see green numbers and lines.

2. The number to the left is the shutter speed. Compare this number to the shutter speed number on the LCD.

3. Experiment with different shutter speeds to see the affect on both brightness and blur on moving objects.
(0:32:28) Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D Return to the DVD
(0:36:50) Unpause the DVD.
PAUSE the DVD when it tells you, as well the end of each section if necessary and finally at How Fast is Fast? Return to the menu.
Set your camera to Av mode and try adjusting the number for the Aperature. You can adjust the Aperture in the same way as the shutter speed, either through the LCD or through the Viewfinder. 1. See how different aperture numbers affect brightness and Depth of Field.

2. Play with the zoom amount and see how that affects your aperture value.

3. Notice how the shutter speed will change based off of the aperture. (0:39:16) (0:43:44) Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D Select the menu option Composition.
PAUSE the DVD when it tells you, as well the end of each section if necessary and return to the DVD menu at Choosing a Lens?
Return to the DVD
1. Try different techniques shown in the video. Overlapping objects, depth of field, framing, Rule of Thirds. Spend the next few minutes combining different rules to get different photo effects.

2. Try using the features of the camera without looking at the buttons. Learn to feel out the buttons and change the controls without without taking your eye away from the eyepiece. Becoming familiar with what these do and being able to switch quickly will benefit you as a photographer.
The next function on the camera is ISO. ISO is a term borrowed from film camera days. Films with a higher ISO number where “quicker” films. Meaning they could capture the same amount of light in less time. In other words, they were more sensitive. The term has carried over to digital. When you increase the ISO, the camera artificially increases the sensor gain to obtain a brighter image. When you have a higher ISO, you don’t need to set your aperture to be as open or your shutter speed to be as low when you’re in low light. The downside, however, is you introduce digital noise into the image. To change the ISO setting, press the ISO button that is between the dial and the mode select knob. You can use the dial or the arrow keys to set your ISO. 1. Take two pictures of the same subject under the same lighting (use P mode)

2. Take one picture at ISO 100 and another at ISO 1600.

3. Switch to Play Mode. Use the Zoom In button to zoom into a small section of your picture.

4. Use the dial to switch between your stored photos. This will switch the between the photos without changing the zoom level.

5. Compare the two photos for their noise level. You should notice that the photo taken with the lower ISO will look much nicer.
Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D (1:05:14) Choose the Menu Option White Balance.
PAUSE the DVD when it tells you, as well the end of each section if necessary and stop at Exposure Compensation.
Return to the DVD
Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D (0:56:43) The DVD has very good examples of why you need to white balance. Depending on where you are, the colour of the lighting is slightly different. You don’t notice it because your eyes/brain automatically compensate, but on a camera it is very noticeable. Usually Auto White Balance does a pretty good job of figuring out what white is, but it doesn’t do a perfect job. In all cases, Manual set white balance is always the best option if you are able to set it. One benefit of using manual white balance is you can intentionally alter the colours of your photo by white balancing on something that isn’t white. Give it a try. Use the manual white balance method on different colours and see what the result is. You can take some very interesting photos this way. That is it for this workshop. The next workshop will go into even more detail about the different camera function such as AF modes, Exposure Compensation and Metering. Learning these will give you even more control over your image compared to what you’ve just learned. As with anything that you learn, the best way to really learn is by doing. Go through all the different functions you’ve learned and try different combinations of settings to see what looks good, and what doesn’t. Just remember, if it doesn’t work right now, it doesn’t mean it won’t work later. The combination of the settings is completely dependent on the subject and the lighting conditions. Something that works in a lightly lit room may look terrible on a bright, sunny day. Have fun! Introduction to the
Canon XSi/450D and XS/1000D Rule of Thirds One of the most important composition rules you can learn
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