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English Literary Time Periods and Movements

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Tinea Stanley

on 11 January 2015

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Transcript of English Literary Time Periods and Movements

English Literary Time Periods and Movements
By: Period 1
The Renaissance and the Reformation
Romanticism/Transcendentalism
What is it?

• Toward the end of the 18th century
• early to mid 19th century
• 1790-1850
• Transcendentalism hit its stride around 1830s

When?

Early Tudor
(1485-1558)
Elizabethan Period
(1558-1603)
Key Writers:
Shakespeare
: Baptized April 26, 1564 (birth date unknown)
Lived in Stratford-upon-Avon. Married Anne Hathaway in 1582.Had three children- Susana, Judith and Hamnet
1590’s there is evidence that he started to earn a living as a playwright and actor. 1594, joined Lord Chamberlain’s men company. Died April 23, 1616

Sir Phillip Sidney
: Nov. 30 1554 – Oct. 17 1586. Born in Penshurst, Kent.He went to school at Shrewsbury School and Christ Church College, in Oxford.

Edmund Spenser:
The exact date of his birth is not known, but it is believed that he was born around 1552. He went to the Merchant Taylor school as a child. He went to Pembroke College in 1569 and earned an M.A in 1576.

Roger Ascham:
Born 1515. Attended Cambridge University when he was 14. From 1548-1550, he was Elizabeth I`s latin and greek tutor. He is best known for his work, The Sholemaster.

Christopher Marlowe:
Baptized Feb. 26, 1564. Went to King`s school and attended Corpus Christi College. Earned his MA. It was speculated that he was a amember of Sir Francis Walshingham`s intellegence service. He took up writing later in life.

Characteristics
During the reign of Elizabeth I
Genres
: Sonnets and plays.

Devices used
: Iambic pentameter, figurative language, Spenserian stanza and dramatic blank verse

Key Works
Shakespeare’s plays and sonnets
- some of the most well known of the Elizabethan works and it helped change language completely.

An apology for poetry by Sir Phillip Sidney-
T
he ideas presented later influenced Percy Bysshe Shelly, Samuel Tayler Coleridge and William Wadsworth.

Astrophil and Stella by Sir Phillip Sidney-
It helped to popularize the sonnet.

The Faerie Queen by Edmund Spenser
- This is an allegory for Elizabeth 1’s reign.

Epithalamion by Edmund Spenser.
A long, traditional poem written in celebration of his marriage

The Tragicall History of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe
. HIs works went on to influence other playwrights, including Shakespeare.
Characteristics
Henry VII is in power.
The emergence of Protestantism
This period is known for its poetry and nonfiction prose.
Key Works

Utopia
: a work of fiction and political philosophy by Thomas More. It is a frame narrative primarily depicting a fictional island society and its religious, social and political customs. This work is important becuse it is the first literary work in which the ideas of Communism appeared and was highly esteemed by all the humanists of Europe in More's time.

Tottel's Miscellany or Songs and Sonnets
: the first printed anthology of English poetry. It was published by Richard Tottel in 1557, and ran to many editions in the sixteenth century.

Ralph Roister Doister
: a comic play by Nicholas Udall, generally regarded as the first comedy to be written in the English language. The plot of the play centres on a rich widow, Christian Custance, who is betrothed to Gawyn Goodluck, a merchant.
Key Writers
Edmund Spenser:
an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I.

Sir Philip Sidney:
scholar, poet, critic, courtier, diplomat, and soldier—who died in battle at the age of 32. His best poetry is contained in the sonnet sequence Astrophel and Stella.

Sir Thomas More:
The author of Utopia. He exempifies the political and spiritual upheavel of the Reformation.

The Enlightenment Period
1660- 1790
The romantic era was rich in

literary criticism and other nonfictional prose. Doubts and pessimism challenged the optimism of the 18th century. It was in this setting that Romanticism was born.
Romanticism was a literary movement that swept through every country of Europe, the United States, and Latin America that lasted from about 1750 to 1870.
Restoration Period (1660-1700) - British King's restoration to the throne. This period has French and classical influences on poetry.
Augustan Age (1700-1750) - imitation of Virgil and Horace
Commonwealth Period
( 1649-1660)

Characteristics
- Puritan Dictatorship by Oliver Cromwell
- Important political writings and prose
Lack of drama produced during this time period.
Age of Johnson (1750-1790) - transitioning to Romantic period, but is still largely neoclassical. In America, the Age of Johnson includes the colonial period.
Some Characteristics Include:
Individuality/Democracy/Personal Freedom
Spiritual/Supernatural Elements
Nature as a Teacher
Interest in Past History/Ancient Greek and Roman Elements
Celebration of the Simple Life
Interest in the Rustic/Pastoral Life
Interest in Folk Traditions
Use of Common Language
Use of Common Subjects
One Sided/Opinionated
Idealized Women
Frequent Use of Personification
Examination of the Poet's Inner Feelings

Characteristics
an increased focus on logic and reason
an increased focus on intellectual work
other works where more imaginative but still represented European societies through allegory
Key Writers
Thomas Hobbes:
he was an English philosopher that is best known for his political philosophy
Alexander Pope:
he was best known for his satirical verses and his translation of homer
Samuel Johnson:
poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer
Johnathan Swift:
Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet and cleric
Key Works
Leviathan:
how government is suppose to be strong and it is suppose to control the people. It gave a philosophical look on the way that the government should be ran because it showed that without a strong government the word would not be civilized
• Ralph Waldo Emerson (haha, we found waldo)
-born May 25, 1803, in Boston, Massachusetts.
-1832, became a Transcendentalist, leading to the later essays "Self-Reliance" and "The American Scholar."
-Emerson continued to write and lecture into the late 1870s.
-died on April 27, 1882, in Concord, Massachusetts.

John Milton
= London on December 9, 1608, into a middle-class family. He was educated at St. Paul’s School, then at Christ’s College, Cambridge, where he began to write poetry in Latin, Italian, and English, and prepared to enter the clergy.

Sir Thomas Browne
- (born Oct. 19, 1605, London—died Oct. 19, 1682, Norwich, Norfolk, Eng.), English physician and author, best known for his book of reflections, Religio Medici.

Andrew Marvell
- Born on March 31, 1621, Marvell grew up in the Yorkshire town of Hull, England, where his father, Rev. Andrew Marvell, was a lecturer at Holy Trinity Church and master of the Charterhouse. At age twelve Marvell began his studies at Trinity College, Cambridge. Four years later, two of Marvell’s poems, one in Latin and one in Greek, were published in an anthology of Cambridge poets.

• Henry David Thoreau
-Born on July 12, 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts.
-1840s he began writing nature poetry with Ralph Waldo Emerson as his friend and mentor.
-1845- began his famous 2 year stay in Walden Pond and wrote his master work, Walden.
-He was known for his beliefs in Transcendentalism, civil disobedience, and was a dedicated abolitionist.

Key Writers
A journey to the Western Islands of Scotland
: an 83 day journey narrated by Sam Johnson
Key Works
Paradise Lost
: an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. The poem concerns the Biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. It also had an influence many writers to come.

The Leviathan
: This book by Thomas Hobbes argues that civil peace and social unity are best achieved by the establishment of a commonwealth through social contract. It is one of the most influential philosophical texts produced during the seventeenth century,




Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
William Wordsworth
Lord Byron
• Born in 1788. He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and is best known for his brilliant use of the British language.
• After leading an unconventional life, and after making romantic literary works, Byron died at a young age in Greece pursuing romantic adventures.

Key Writers
Post- Modern
1945 - onward
The Gullivers Travels
- uses allegory to represent European societies. This book caused debate about the nature of mankind, and whether Jonathan Swift was too pessimistic
Jacobean Period
(1603-1625)
Characteristics
Form of literature that uses style and ideology. This type of literature has unreliable narrators and sometimes unrealistic and impossible pots along with games and dark-humor and self reference by the author
Key Writers
Samuel Beckett:
Irish novelist, director, playwright, and poet. Often seen as the first post- modernist writer because his novels influences the style of later writers
Key Works

A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings by Garbriel Garcia Marquez-
A man with very enormous wings land in a person backyard and to be believed to be an angel. This book is an example of magical realism.
W.G. Sebald:
German writer and academic, best known for his literary critics
Umberto Eco:
semiotician, essayist, philosopher, literary critic, and novelist. He is best known for his historical novel " nome della rosa".
J.G. Ballard's:
English novelist, short story writer, and essayist
Molloy, Malone Dies, The Unnamable by Samuel Beckett-
characters lives and situations seem to splice together until it becomes apparent they were the fictions of one person all along.

Austerltz by W.G. Sebald-
it was his final novel about his life and the hardships he had. mixture of fact and fiction and is mysterious.
Infinite Jest by David Foster Wallace-
The main character uses his environment to his advantage. Environments that tell stories to provide metaphorical openings or cues and artificial finish lines as closure clues

Literary Devices
Born in Cockermouth, Cumberland, England, on April 7, 1770
William Wordsworth is known for writing Lyrical Ballads (1798) with Samuel Taylor Coleridge
created the metaphor of nature as an emblem of the mind of God.
Wordsworth died in Rydal Mount, Westmorland, England, on April 23, 1850.

Pastiche- using ideas from previous writings and literary styles and putting them together to make new styles
intertexuality- acknowledgement of previous writings in another
Metafiction- in fictional stories when the story examines the elements of fiction (ex. when a character talks about the font of the story or the coming of the end of the book)
Reader involvement- direct address to the reader and open acknowledgement
Maximalism- long and really detailed writing
Magical Realism- introduction of fictional things in a story that is realistic
Faction- mixing of actual historical events with fictional ones without really explaining which ones are real or not

Hobbes
Milton
Characteristics:
- Often dark in mood
- Questioned the stability of the social order
- Full of prose and drama
- Genres: Masque- a sub genre and a form of festive courtly entertainment.

Key Works

Nature (little book by Emerson)
( ten years of intense study in philosophy, religion, and literature, and in his First Series of essays.)
• The publication "Lyrical Ballads" by Wordsworth and Coleridge
• Poetry by William Blake
• Poetry by Robert Burns
• Rousseau's philosophical writings
• Hawthorne’s short stories include "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" (1832), "Roger Malvin's Burial" (1832), "Young Goodman Brown" (1835), and the collection Twice-Told Tales.

Importance /Impact
By the dawn of the nineteenth century,
experimentation with new styles and subjects became much more acceptable
. The high-flown language of the previous generation’s poets was replaced with more natural cadences and verbiage.


With the 18th-century arrival of Romanticism,
Western culture began to view nature as something sacred that would uplift, not degrade, the soul..
The impulse to protect children's innocence -- the very notion of children's innocence -- is a Romantic legacy.

Work Cited
http://www.online-literature.com/periods/romanticism.php
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/508675/Romanticism
http://www.ushistory.org/us/26f.asp
http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=aa73
http://www.studiocleo.com/librarie/schiller/biography.html
http://www.biography.com/people/william-wordsworth-9537033
http://www.biography.com/people/lord-byron-21124525

John Donne:
an English poet and a cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets.


John Webster
: an English Jacobean dramatist best known for his tragedies The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, which are often regarded as masterpieces of the early 17th-century English stage

William Shakespeare
: Baptized April 26, 1564- Lived in Stratford-upon-Avon.
1590’s - there is evidence that he started to earn a living as a playwright and actor. 1594, joined Lord Chamberlain’s men company. Died April 23, 1616

John Milton
= London on December 9, 1608, into a middle-class family. He was educated at St. Paul’s School, then at Christ’s College, Cambridge, where he began to write poetry in Latin, Italian, and English, and prepared to enter the clergy.


Key Writers
Key Works:
- The Knight of the Burning Pestle
: a play by Francis Beaumont. It mocks the rising middle class and especially of those nouveaux riches who pretend to dictate literary taste without knowing much literature at all. It is an example of the plays written in this time period.

-
King James Bible
: one of the most massive translation projects in the history of English up to this time, was started in 1604 and completed in 1611. It represents the culmination of a tradition of Bible translation into English

- Shakespeare`s Later Works:
Some of these last works were written in this period. This includes Macbeth, The Tempest, and King Lear. These are great plays still have influence today.


Medieval Period
Characteristics
chivalry
courtly love
women take a place
figures of speech are numerous
descriptions are ornate
pleasant aspects of nature predominate
frequent didactic intention
new forms of rhythm
Writers
Geoffrey Chaucer
aka Father of English Literature
c. 1340- born London, England
from 1370-1373 he went abroad & familiarized himself w/ the work of Italian poet Dante & Petron while in Genoa
wrote Canterbury Tales
Works
"Beowulf"(1000) is an epic poem with an unknown author. It is about a young warrior who sets out on a quest to defeat a horrible demon that terrorizes a great King's mead hall. Beowulf has inspired many writers like J.R.R. Tolkien. Many other authors create stories based off this epic.
"The Song of Roland"(1000) is a heroic poem with an unknown author. It is based on the Battle of Roncesvalles. It tells the story of Roland as he rounds up the Franks to fight against Spain through the mountains and help Saracens plan their attack. This is one of oldest surviving major works of French literature.
Modern Period
Characteristics
Inner self
Consciousness
Focused on nature & being
Life is unordered
International break against religious, political and social views
(1910-1945)
Writers
Albert Camus
French-Algerian writer
born 7Nov1913 Mondavi, French Algeria
political journalism, novels, & essays during 1940
admitted to University of Algiers
awarded nobel peace prize for literature in 1957
The Stranger(1942)
Works
"The Tower" is a poem by William Butler Yeats. It ream life at the time. Yeats believed that the bitterness present in the poem gave it power. "The Tower" was one of the major driving forces of the Literary Revival.
"The Stranger" is an existentialism novel by Albert Campus. It is about a man who did not seem sad at his mother's funeral and is condemned because of it. This novel and many of Campus' other works made huge contributions to many issues in moral philosophy
Caroline Period
(1625 - 1649)
Characteristics
-During the reign of Charles I
- The death of many major authors
- Increase religious and social tension
-Increase in Cavalier and Metaphysical poets
- Decrease in trends seen in the 2 previous periods
Works
"The Canterbury Tales"(1390) is an anthology by Geoffrey Chaucer. It includes over 20 stories written in Middle English and is presented as a story telling by pilgrims as they traveled together. "The Canterbury Tales" made the use of English in literature popular.
Key Writers

John Donne:
an English poet and a cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets.

John Milton
= London on December 9, 1608, into a middle-class family. He was educated at St. Paul’s School, then at Christ’s College, Cambridge, where he began to write poetry in Latin, Italian, and English, and prepared to enter the clergy.

Sir Thomas Browne
- (born Oct. 19, 1605, London—died Oct. 19, 1682, Norwich, Norfolk, Eng.), English physician and author, best known for his book of reflections, Religio Medici.

Jean-Paul Sartre
21June1905 Paris, France
Academic Philosopher, Literary Critic, Activists, Screenwriter, Playwright, Author, Journalist
October 1964 awarded Nobel Peace Prize, but declined
Nausea(1938)
Key Works
The English Moor:
a Caroline era stage play, a comedy written by Richard Brome. It is the first of the five plays included in the 1659 octavo collection of Brome's works called Five New Plays. It is important because it is an example of the plays produced during this period.

Comus:
a masque in honour of chastity, written by John Milton.The plot concerns two brothers and their sister, simply called "the Lady", lost in a journey through the woods. This is important because it is one of the many works of John Milton, a great poet and playwright during this period.

Lycidas
: poem by John Milton, written in 1637 as a pastoral elegy. It was dedicated to the memory of Edward King, a collegemate of Milton's at Cambridge who drowned. The poem was very popular. It was hailed as Milton's best poem, and by some as the greatest lyrical poem in the English language

Works
"Ulysses" is a modernist novel by James Joyce. It focuses on many characters going about their daily lives. This novel was written by a well-known writer in Ireland and affected the film and literature areas of Irish culture.
Ariel, Danielle, Cierra, Ezeriah, Heather
Victorian Period

1832-1901



(500-1500)
Main Characteristics
Sentimental Novels
Instead of poetry, which dominated the Romantic period, novels became the dominant medium.
Lasted 2x the Romantic period and was longer than any other British monarch.
Rise of aestheticism
Writers created work that regarded social, economic, religious, and philosophical ideas.
Writers criticized industrialization and lack of the rural lifestyle.
Writers critized imbalance of power between the poor and middle class.
Heroes of Victorian literature are often the oppressed members of society
Romanticizes romanticized hard work and strong virtue
Key writers
Elizabeth Browning: Browning was best known for her love poems and later became one of the prominent English poets super popular in Britain and the US. She never had formal education despite her ability and her enthusiasm to read. By 8, she was reading works by Homer! (The Cry of the Children)
Alfred Tennyson
Matthew Arnold
William Wordsworth
Oscar Wilde
Charles Dickens: Born in 1812 to John Dickens, a naval clerk seeking to be rich, and Elizabeth Barrow, a teacher; Charles Dickens had little access to opportunities as his family had financial struggles. When he was 12, his father was jailed for debt and Dickens lost possibilities for pursuing education. Finally in 1827, Dickens was forced to drop out and work as a office helper to contribute to his family’s income. This job became the the first window of opportunities to open up for Dickens writing career. (A Christmas Carol)
Key Works
The Cry of the Children
Elizabeth Browning
Political Poetry
Tears, Idle Tears
Alfred Tennyson
Lyric Poem
Dover Beach
Matthew Arnold
Lyric Poem
Vanity Fair
William Wordsworth
Satire
The Importance of being Earnest
Oscar Wilde
Farcical Comedy
A Christmas Carol
Charles Dickens
Novella
Classical
1200 BCE - 455 CE
Main characteristics
This is a chaotic period of warrior-princes, wandering sea-traders, and fierce pirates.
key writers
Gorgias
Aesop
Plato
Socrates
Aristotle
Euripides
Sophocles
Key works
Fresco from the villa of the mysteries
pompeii 80 BC
Boscotrecase
pompeii



Team Members
Imani B.
- Early Tudor
Lenore M.
- Elizabethan
Shamar W
.- Jacobean and Caroline
Kiera J.
- Commonwealth
Cameron Warren, Sofia Campuzano,
Andrew Peart, Russell Kline, Tinea Stanley
Enlightenment ( Neoclassical) and Post- Modern
Olivia Gomez
Chelsea Jones
Mikayla Raines
Yolonda Miller
Rafael Torrealba

Olivia Gomez
Chelsea Jones
Mikayla raines

Work Cited
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/184911/Elizabethan-literature
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Philip_Sidney
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/edmund-spenser-biography-sonnets-quiz.html
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/37907/Roger-Ascham
http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bio/64.html
http://www.biography.com/people/christopher-marlowe-9399572#synopsis


The rape of the lock is a mock - heroic poem
Kyle P, Brian K, Michael S, Zaesha A, Sarah K
Ariel, Cierra, Danielle, Ezeriah, Heather
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