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Paraphrasing Workshop for Cued Language Transliterators
Transcript of Paraphrasing Workshop for Cued Language Transliterators
* this that and the other What makes paraphrasing difficult? Language Scientific says... 'The (transliterator) needs to be (paraphrasing) the sentence while simultaneously listening to and comprehending the next sentence.' Remember... Paraphrasing is not the ideal/goal, but it is at times the reality, the most reasonable or appropriate accommodation, and necessary to promote equal access. What techniques to CLTs employ while paraphrasing? According to Language Matters Inc - 4 ways
1) Eliminating redundancies
2) Using synonyms with fewer syllables (or more easily cued syllables)
3) Changing from passive to active voice
4) Moving secondary info to end of message Eliminating Redundancies Sample "It needs to be at least 50 pictures or more."
>>>omit "or more" Tips 1) When something is already implied, it is considered redundant. (ie in the sample: “Daddy was talking to the man and daddy said to him.....” the words ‘to him’ are redundant.)
2) When pointing at the visual aide while verbally directing attention to it, could be considered a redundancy. (ie pointing at a graphic on a sheet while saying, “This one right here.” the words ‘right here’ would be redundant.) Using Synonyms with fewer syllables (more easily cued) Sample "It's, approximately, three quarters of the way full"
>>> "It's, about, three-fourths full." Tip Proper nouns, once established, can be changed to pronouns. Changing from passive to active voice Sample "With five seconds left in the game, an illegal timeout was called by one of the players." (22 syllables)
>>> "A player called an illegal timeout with less than five seconds left in the game." (18 syllables) Tip Paraphrasing in this way requires greater lag time and calls for great working memory and word rearrangement. Moving secondary information to the end Sample "To me, the most beautiful part was..."
>>> "The most beautiful part was...(to me)." Tip Indicating speakers can make it so calling each other by name is 'secondary' information and could be moved to the end of the sentence, if time allows. Paraphrasing in Context Putting it all together Unfortunately, life will not present us isolated sentences to paraphrase. Paraphrasing is an organic, intuitive, "live" process. When deciding when and how to paraphrase, allow context to be your guide. And remember: even if things go awry, you are part of an educational team - you can communicate further to rectify any unintentional, ill consequences. When things go awry... Even though paraphrasing is sometimes deemed the closest we can get to an equivalent/equal access experience for our visual language users, paraphrasing will always mean that something is 'lost.' When the outcome is altered as a result of our paraphrasing, what responsibility do we have to take ownership? When do we NOT throw our hands up and say, "Well, that's just the way things went and, as a CLT, I can't meddle." ? Consequences of choosing not to paraphrase, despite it being the best option. Once a CLT has attained an ability to cue at verbatim speed, and we know our student can read us at that pace, we may forget that we still need to paraphrase at times. What are the risks of going on 'autopilot' and not paraphrasing when necessary? Why is it important to always be tuned in to the environment/class dynamics? What does the inner monologue of a working CLT sound like - what are you always assessing? "Be proactive as well as reactive" Tips for successful Paraphrasing Inservice: Be proactive rather than reactive. Meet with teachers before the first day of class to explain the dynamics involved in using a visual language. Let them know that paraphrasing is inevitable, and you will use your professional judgment on when and how to paraphrase. Invite teachers to ‘help you help them’ in the following ways:
Preview videos in advance: familiarize yourself with the video content so you can know what is omittable and what is not. Pay special attention to charts, graphs and other such visually rich information note how long they are on screen. If there is any audio played during those moments, might it be best to hold it to the end or paraphrase? If it’s an educational film, is the speaker’s name and credentials superimposed on the image, and could therefore be indexed to rather than cued? etc...
Preview worksheets and tests in advance: Knowing what content the students will be held accountable for will assist you in your paraphrasing and will help avoid omissions or rephrasing that would leave the dDeaf cuer at a disadvantage.
Pause and hold for visual references: Remind teachers that when they say, for instance, “A water molecule is only this big (accompanied by a flash of a size referent gesture with the hands) and a glucose molecule is this big (accompanied by a quick size referent gesture with the hands).” That, by the time the CLT (and the DHOH student) gets to turn to see the visual aide, it may already be done and gone. Ask teachers to be self aware for times they say “this” and “that” and ask they they PAUSE and HOLD their references. (This is also a common occurrence when looking at graphs/charts/diagrams.) More tips for successful paraphrasing Refer Code of Conduct, mentors, and other resources: Our job is to do more than facilitate communication between Hearing and dDeaf consumers. Tenant 2 says we are to provide appropriate training to DHH consumers to allow for proper transliteration utilization. We need transparency in our work in order to be trusted and to empower our clients. Tenant 3 says we are to provide Hearing consumers with appropriate demonstration and explanation of the transliterator role. We cannot assume they know anything. We are a part of a team with them. Some things may take multiple explanations ;)
Be humble: If something goes awry due to the limitations of your capability or function, own it. Take measures to ‘clean it up’ to ensure the dDeaf child does not suffer an ill consequence due to the CLTs decisions.
PRACTICE: Have someone read aloud to you. Push yourself to paraphrase when you could do it verbatim. Sit next to the tv and transliterate the news, making sure you allow time (paraphrase and point) to include the visual aides. Educational videos are also great for this. Thank you!!! Feel free to contact me: Jenee Petri
(612) 807-3134 According to Language Matters Inc - 3 reasons Definitions of
Paraphrasing Resource: streetleverage.com
Article: 'Sign Language Interpreters: Are Acts of Omission a Failure of Duty?'