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3.5 - Invasive Species
Transcript of 3.5 - Invasive Species
3.5 - Invasive Species
What Are Invasive Species?
Invasive Species- Non-native species whose intentional or accidental introduction negatively impacts the natural environment
-Over 3000 invasive species in Canada
-Over 185 invasive species in great lakes
-Introductions of invasive species usually fail because new environment must be within animal's tolerance limits
-Difficult to find food or compete with native species
-Invasive species change natural ecosystem
some examples of invasive species
Impacts of Invasive Species
(e.g. Invasive species compete with/feed on native species = Population decline or extinction)
(e.g. Damage to forests and agricultural crops = Financial losses)
(e.g. Loss of species and reduced water quality = Negative impacts on water-based recreation)
(e.g. Pesticides used to control invasive species = Pollution and health risks)
- Sometimes, organisms are intentionally introduced to control invasive species
- Tests are conducted before release
- Biological control may potentially create a new threat
- Rarely does biological control eradicate an invasive species completely
- 3 insect species were released in Ontario to control the purple loosestrife which grows in wetlands
- Pesticides are widely used to chemically control invasive species
- They are mostly used on forest and agricultural pests as there is significant economic value
- Commercial farmers may use pesticides to kill species which harm crops
- Pesticides reduce crop damage; however they may pollute air, water, and soil
- Pesticides are often sprayed onto desired crops
-Zebra mussels are small freshwater molluscs
-Introduced to North America in the mid-1980s
-Spread rapidly to all of the Great Lakes and inland waterways in the United States and Canada
-Millions of dollars in damage annually
-Asian carp will compete for food with indigenous species and prey on their larvae
-Moreover, Asian Silver carp tend to jump out of the water and endanger recreational boaters and water skiers
-Asian carp have become a serious problem in US waterways, and have the potential to invade Canadian freshwater's
- Some invasive species can be controlled with physical barriers or removal
- The Hamilton harbour barriers were constructed to protect Cootes Paradise, a valuable wetland, from carp, an invasive fish species
- The small fish can go through the barrier, while the larger fish, such as carp, swim into the chamber
- The barrier is than removed in the fall so that the carp go on their migration
Q: Explain why most introduced species are not successful in their new environment.
A: Most introduced species are not successful in their new environment because they are not adapted to the biotic and abiotic conditions, and they might not be able to compete with the native species for food. The temperature range and climate also affects them
Q: List and briefly outline the possible ecological consequences of introducing invasive species.
A: When invasive species max out they compete with the native species for food and other resources. As a result the population of the native species may decline. Invasive species also change the entire structure and dynamics of an ecosystem.
Q: Describe three methods used to control invasive species.
A: Pesticides and herbicides are used to control invasive species, but the chemicals are costly and have a negative impact on the native species. In some cases, mechanical control (such as barriers and physical removal) can be effective ways to control invasive species. Biological control involves purposefully introducing organisms into an ecosystem to kill, eat or compete with the invasive species.
-Introduced to Canada in 1800s
-From European invader that degrades wetlands
-Even started invading dry lands such as pastures and croplands
-Choke out native plants and wildlife
- Galerucella beetles were introduced to eat the purple loosestrife
- Fishing nets are an efficient method of catching fish