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Copy of Blackout Template

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Thomas Burton

on 22 May 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Blackout Template

SLR PHOTOGRAPHY
FOR BEGINNERS
Shutter Speed
Shutter speed of a camera is the time in which the camera's shutter is open and recording of an exposure takes place.
This speed can range from 1/5000th of a second all the way down to 30seconds and beyond, depending on other settings and the situation you are faced with.
The recording of light to create images. The recording can take place on a variety of light sensitive surfaces. In this case, your camera records light on a highly sensitive computer chip referred to as a CCD.
Photography is:
Exposures are photographs, a correct or well exposed photograph is a balance of various settings in order to produce the best possible image for that scenario.
How do you create exposures?
The term recording allows us to consider exactly what photography is and it's limitations.
When taking photographs you can only accurately expose from lightsources that are balanced.
An imbalance will result in areas of under (-) or over exposure (+)
Recording of light
In the same way that when you make an audio recording, you are unable to record both loud and quiet at the same time. Typical methods of photography are incapable of producing images which capture a correct exposure for both light and dark.
Exposure Triangle
The aperture is a function of the lens on your camera. It is the width of the hole in the lens which lets in the light. Aperture is measured in F-Stops.

F-Stops range from the widest being f/1 to the narrowest being f/22.
Aperture
ISO is the measured sensitivity of the light-sensitive media.
ISO ranges from the less sensitive ISO 50 up to the most sensitive ISO 64,000
Taps
Exposure is a balance of all three elements of the exposure triangle, all three of which have different effects on the image produced.

An effective analogy to describe the balance of the exposure triangle is imagining filling a glass of water from a tap.
Imagine shutter speed as the amount of time you leave the tap running in order to fill the glass.

Leave the tap on too long and your glass
over
-flows

Not long enough and it is
under
-filled.
Shutter Speed
Aperture
Aperture is how much you turn the tap to control the volume of water that runs into the glass.

Open the faucet slightly and the glass takes a long time to fill.

Open the faucet fully and the glass fills faster.
ISO
ISO in this analogy can describe the size of the glass you are trying to fill.
The smaller the glass, the higher the ISO.
Task
I'd like to set a task to help you better understand the exposure triangle and it's effects, both negative and positive on images.

In three small groups, you will find information on one of the elements of the exposure triangle.
Motion Blur
Shutter speed has the effect of
capturing everything that happens in the duration that the shutter is open.

If your shutter is open for a very short amount of time, you will be able to freeze movement and produce crisp images.
If open for a long time you may get motion blur. The effects of long shutter speeds can be put to good effect with techniques called painting with light or light trails.
Noise
ISO values control the sensitivity of the light sensitive surface. If the ISO is set too high, you are at risk of seeing "noise" in your image.
Noise can cause shadowed areas of your exposure particularly, to lack detail and to show unnatural colouration.
Depth of Field
This one is more tricky...

'Depth of field ' (DoF) describes the area of the image which is in focus. This value is variable depending on several lens properties, most obviously, with aperture.

We can describe DoF as being either shallow or deep. Shallow DoF has only a small area which is in focus, whereas deep DoF will result in a larger area of focus.
Shallow

Deep
wide aperture f/1
narrow aperture f/22
Tom Burton
thomas.burton@ccad.ac.uk
Settings
White Balance - Auto
Drive Mode - Self-timer (2 secs)
Shooting Mode - Manual

Low Light
Focus - In low light you camera may struggle to auto focus, this is because your camera relies on contrast in order to find focus. Switching to Manual focus may be the only option, this is often simply by flicking the AF/M switch on the lens.
Self-Timer
We use a self timer to reduce the risk of camera shake, this is often the result of the photographer wobbling the tripod.
LIGHT METER
WEEK 2
Re-cap
Exposure Triangle
Motion Blur
Shutter speed has the effect of
capturing everything that happens in the duration that the shutter is open.

If your shutter is open for a very short amount of time, you will be able to freeze movement and produce crisp images.
If open for a long time you may get motion blur. The effects of long shutter speeds can be put to good effect with techniques called painting with light or light trails.
Noise
ISO values control the sensitivity of the light sensitive surface. If the ISO is set too high, you are at risk of seeing "noise" in your image.
Noise can cause shadowed areas of your exposure particularly, to lack detail and to show unnatural colouration.
Depth of Field
This one is more tricky...

'Depth of field ' (DoF) describes the area of the image which is in focus. This value is variable depending on several lens properties, most obviously, with aperture.

We can describe DoF as being either shallow or deep. Shallow DoF has only a small area which is in focus, whereas deep DoF will result in a larger area of focus.
Shallow

Deep
wide aperture f/1
narrow aperture f/22
DoF
Depth of field creates visual affects that can focus the viewer's eye on specific areas of your image. As we learned in the last session DoF can be adjusted using the aperture on our lens.
There are other variables that will effect DoF also, all of which are caused by the lens.
FOCAL LENGTH
Focal length is the distance from the front element (front glass) in your lens to the surface of the light sensitive media.

You may think of focal length as the zoom of the lens.

There are different categories of focal length, the three main categories are:
Wide (10-35mm)
Normal (35-50mm)
Tele (50-300mm)
Anything outside of these can be described as super (wide/tele) and is usually intended to create special effects.
The focal length of a lens can cause several effects, one is the illusion of objects being closer or farther away from one another.

A short focal length will make objects appear to be at a greater distance from one another.

Whereas a long focal length with squash objects together.
DISTANCE
The distance from your lens to your subject will effect the DoF. As you focus on objects close to your lens, the depth of field will become shallower.
Metering modes
Evaluative mode (also described as Matrix mode) is an overall metering mode that takes into account all areas of the image.
This mode can be helpful to take well balanced photographs in scenarios where the exposure of single areas is not so important.
Partial mode takes meter readings from roughly 12% of the center of the frame.
Spot metering mode is the most focused mode, it takes meter readings from only the center 3-5% of the frame.
Center-weighted average mode takes meter readings from the center 30% of the frame, this mode is a fantastic way of using your light meter, it allows you an element of control, without losing the ease of Evaluative mode.
Composition
When taking creative photographs one of the most fundamental aspects is achieving a composition which is visually exciting.

To achieve this, many factors must be taken into account, but there are a few simple rules that you can follow to get started...
Rule of Thirds
Looking into the image
Rule of odds
Leading Lines
Framing
Don't forget the foreground
Exposure
When we read an exposure, our camera's light meter attempts to create an overall reading of the image. In order to give the most universal exposure the camera will always try to achieve a balance equivalent to 13% grey.
The camera achieves this by taking readings from different parts of the image and working the overall average exposure.
The light meter always outputs 13% grey as this is a tone which allows for shadows and highlights to appear in your image as well as a good range of mid tones.
Try this:

Take a photograph of a plain white wall ensuring that your photograph is exposed according to the light meter.

Now photograph a black wall and ensure this is exposed correctly also.
White Balance
White balance is the setting which controls how your camera records the temperature of light. It enables us to record colours accurately in a variety of different light situtions.
Colour temperature is measured in Kelvin (K) and varies from the short wavelength 1000K to the long wavelength 10,000K.
Setting custom white balance requires you to photograph a white surface to allow the camera to work out the precise temperature of light.
Week 3
Re-cap
Composition
When taking creative photographs one of the most fundamental aspects is achieving a composition which is visually exciting.

To achieve this, many factors must be taken into account, but there are a few simple rules that you can follow to get started...
Rule of Thirds
Looking into the image
Rule of odds
Leading Lines
Framing
Don't forget the foreground
The focal length of a lens can cause several effects, one is the illusion of objects being closer or farther away from one another.

A short focal length will make objects appear to be at a greater distance from one another.

Whereas a long focal length with squash objects together.
Metering modes
Evaluative mode (also described as Matrix mode) is an overall metering mode that takes into account all areas of the image.
This mode can be helpful to take well balanced photographs in scenarios where the exposure of single areas is not so important.
Partial mode takes meter readings from roughly 12% of the center of the frame.
Spot metering mode is the most focused mode, it takes meter readings from only the center 3-5% of the frame.
Center-weighted average mode takes meter readings from the center 30% of the frame, this mode is a fantastic way of using your light meter, it allows you an element of control, without losing the ease of Evaluative mode.
White Balance
White balance is the setting which controls how your camera records the temperature of light. It enables us to record colours accurately in a variety of different light situtions.
Colour temperature is measured in Kelvin (K) and varies from the short wavelength 1000K to the long wavelength 10,000K.
Setting custom white balance requires you to photograph a white surface to allow the camera to work out the precise temperature of light.
Ambient light
So far when we have been considering our photography and using our cameras we have been thinking about 'ambient light' i.e the light that is already there as we approach a subject.
Ambient light can be beautiful and in the correct circumstances is all the photographer will ever need, knowing how to best deal with ambient light is the next stage!
Back lighting, simply placing the main light source behind your subject, not only creates a beautiful halo around your subject, but also reduces hard, heavy shadows.
Rembrandt lighting

This can be achieved by turning your subject directly into the light source then gradually moving the subject until the characteristic triangle of light is formed on the shadowed side of the subject.
Direct

A direct light has your subject looking directly into the light source, this can either be used with your back to the light source (subject looking into camera) or more creatively by adjusting your position to get a more dynamic light.
Quality of light
When we refer to light we often talk about the quality of light in an image, effectively this describes the way shadows look in our images.
The most common ways to describe light are as either Hard or Soft.
Hard light causes dramatic shadows and high contrast, this can be used effectively in portraits but if used poorly can create unflattering portraits
Soft light has the appearance of wrapping around the subject and creates soft looking, flattering portraits.
Comparison between bad use of hard light and good use of soft light
How do I achieve soft light?
The quality of light is determined by the relative size of the light source to the subject. A bare lightbulb used to light a full length portrait will create a hard light, whereas if you use the same bulb to light an insect you will achieve much softer light
Soft natural light is created by anything that causes natural sunlight to be reflected or diffused in any way, for instance;


In shaded/north facing areas (Reflected light)

In rooms with white walls (Reflected light)

Rooms with net or light coloured closed curtains (Diffused light)

On cloudy days (Diffused light)

Distance also affects the relative size of the light source, even with an extremely large light source (like the sun!) it is still small relative to our subject matter.

When light is reflected or diffused it changes the light source so that the object it is being reflected off/diffused through now becomes the light source.
Richard Avedon
Artificial Light
When introducing artificial light (light that isn't already in the scene) we can choose to use either a constant light source or flash lighting, both of which have their merits.
Constant
Constant light sources are beneficial as they show us, in a very familiar and instant manner, exactly what our lighting will do to the overall scene.
Their downfall is that they are often less powerful than flash and as a result, do not have the motion freezing quality that flash possesses. It is also often the case that the intensity of constant light sources cannot be adjusted easily.
Constant lights can also be incredibly hot and uncomfortable for use.
Flash
Flash photography is one of the more difficult areas to fully master as the introduction of flash changes what we know about ambient light exposure. Most modern flash units will have automatic modes (TTL) which can be used to make using flash easy.

Direct flash as the main light source often creates hard light which if used inappropriately can cause ugly shadows and "hot spots", to soften the light we can use flash modifiers
Modifiers can include;
Bounce cards
Soft boxes
Umbrellas
Diffusers


Fill-in Flash
(Using your pop-up flash more effectively)
Fill-in flash is a term used to describe the process of supplementing ambient light with flash in order to create a more even, balanced exposure, as well as creating more creative and exciting photographs.
Fill flash is created using the pop-up flash in combination with the Flash Exposure Compensation feature on your camera.
In groups, research...
How to deal with hard light?
Pros and cons...
Scrim
Reflector
Flash
Draw a diagram to demonstrate how your technique is used.

Flash
Flash photography is one of the more difficult areas to fully master as the introduction of flash changes what we know about ambient light exposure. Most modern flash units will have automatic modes (TTL) which can be used to make using flash easy.

Direct flash as the main light source often creates hard light which if used inappropriately can cause ugly shadows and "hot spots", to soften the light we can use flash modifiers
Week 4
Fill-in Flash
(Using your pop-up flash more effectively)
Fill-in flash is a term used to describe the process of supplementing ambient light with flash in order to create a more even, balanced exposure, as well as creating more creative and exciting photographs.
Modifiers can include;
Bounce cards
Soft boxes
Umbrellas
Diffusers


Task 1
Objectives:
To re-cap the theories of light quality
To learn to use the built-in flash on our camera
To explore the use of external flash units
To experiment with flash techniques
Using your camera's pop-up flash take photographs of your subject against an illuminated background to test Fill-flash techniques.

Use your camera's flash compensation to adjust the exposure of your flash.
Fill flash is created using the pop-up flash in combination with the Flash Exposure Compensation feature on your camera.
Try exposing your photograph (using the regular exposure triangle) to account for the background and allow your flash to work out the exposure for your subject.
Bounced Flash
Task 2
Use an external flash source on the TTL (automatic) function to photograph your subject using direct flash, then try the same image this time bouncing your flash off of differing white surface.

You may need to experiment with increasing flash exposure in order to achieve a better exposure
Quality of light
When we refer to light we often talk about the quality of light in an image, effectively this describes the way shadows look in our images.
The most common ways to describe light are as either Hard or Soft.
Soft light has the appearance of wrapping around the subject and creates soft looking, flattering portraits.
Comparison between bad use of hard light and good use of soft light
How do I achieve soft light?
The quality of light is determined by the relative size of the light source to the subject. A bare lightbulb used to light a full length portrait will create a hard light, whereas if you use the same bulb to light an insect you will achieve much softer light
Soft natural light is created by anything that causes natural sunlight to be reflected or diffused in any way, for instance;


In shaded/north facing areas (Reflected light)

In rooms with white walls (Reflected light)

Rooms with net or light coloured closed curtains (Diffused light)

On cloudy days (Diffused light)

Distance also affects the relative size of the light source, even with an extremely large light source (like the sun!) it is still small relative to our subject matter.

When light is reflected or diffused it changes the light source so that the object it is being reflected off/diffused through now becomes the light source.
Richard Avedon
In groups, research...
How to deal with hard light?
Pros and cons...
Scrim
Reflector
Flash
Draw a diagram to demonstrate how your technique is used.
Flash can be bounced in different ways in order to reflect the light and increase the relative size of the light source.

Bouncing vertically (90deg)
Bouncing diagonally
Bouncing to the side (90deg rotation)
Bouncing behind

Task 3
Explore the negatives associated with bouncing flash
Catchlights
& Reverse engineering
By looking at catch lights in the eyes of the subject you are able to reverse engineer photographs and recreate them.
Catch lights are created using light sources, a catch light card can act as a light source to bring your subject's eyes to life.
Hard light causes dramatic shadows and high contrast, this can be used effectively in portraits but if used poorly can create unflattering portraits
From these two images we can deduce that there is at least two light sources.

A larger round light source and a smaller rectangular light source.

In the second image the tone in the background also changes, could this be due to changes in the exposure or the introduction of a third light source?
Dragging the shutter
Dragging the shutter is a term used to describe the act of using longer shutter speeds, this combined with the use of flash can give some really interesting and creative photographs.
This can easily achieved with our cameras in manual mode.

Curtain Sync refers to the time in the exposure where the flash fires.

First curtain sync fires the flash first then allows the rest of the exposure to take place. First curtain is good for photographs taken in dark environments, it allows you to capture the action and then add interesting lighting effects by moving the camera.

Second curtain sync fires the flash at the end of the exposure, this method allows for a familiar representation of movement.
Off camera flash
Taking your flash off camera can be a method of introducing different light sources into photographs allowing for a much more creative and dynamic approach to all areas of photography.
Week 5
Demonstrate use of camera handling techniques
Analyse off-camera flash to describe the pros and cons
Use off-camera flash
Explain how to read histogram information
Use digital enhancement software

Fill-in Flash
(Using your pop-up flash more effectively)
Fill-in flash is a term used to describe the process of supplementing ambient light with flash in order to create a more even, balanced exposure, as well as creating more creative and exciting photographs.
Fill flash is created using the pop-up flash in combination with the Flash Exposure Compensation feature on your camera.
Bounced Flash
Flash can be bounced in different ways in order to reflect the light and increase the relative size of the light source.

Bouncing vertically (90deg)
Bouncing diagonally
Bouncing to the side (90deg rotation)
Bouncing behind

Catchlights
& Reverse engineering
By looking at catch lights in the eyes of the subject you are able to reverse engineer photographs and recreate them.
Catch lights are created using light sources, a catch light card can act as a light source to bring your subject's eyes to life.
From these two images we can deduce that there is at least two light sources.

A larger round light source and a smaller rectangular light source.

In the second image the tone in the background also changes, could this be due to changes in the exposure or the introduction of a third light source?
Dragging the shutter
Dragging the shutter is a term used to describe the act of using longer shutter speeds, this combined with the use of flash can give some really interesting and creative photographs.
This can easily achieved with our cameras in manual mode.

Curtain Sync refers to the time in the exposure where the flash fires.

First curtain sync fires the flash first then allows the rest of the exposure to take place. First curtain is good for photographs taken in dark environments, it allows you to capture the action and then add interesting lighting effects by moving the camera.

Second curtain sync fires the flash at the end of the exposure, this method allows for a familiar representation of movement.
Recap
Task 1
Using techniques explored in the first session, create images that contain light trails, exploring the techniques known as 'Painting and Drawing with light'.
Task 2
Using camera control knowledge learned in session 2, create a custom white balance setting to deal with a difficult light source
Task 3
Using camera control knowledge learned in session 3 to use metering modes to deal with a tricky light source.
Task 4
Using flash lighting create a photograph of your subject by applying the techniques learned in session 4.

- Try direct and bounced flash using on-board or external flash units
Task 5
In pairs or small groups, research the technique of using off-camera flash, consider the technical limitations, cost and practical limitations of the technique.

Compare and contrast this with information on the benefits of using the technique.

Fill a worksheet with information you have found, feed this information back to other groups.
Off-Camera Flash

Using radio triggers and a single flash unit, your task is to explore the use of off-camera flash.

Take into consideration the ambient light sources, what can you do to balance your flash and ambient light?

Try dramatic effects using only flash and fast shutter speeds.

Histogram
Histogram in photography is a graphical representation of the values of tones captured within your images. The x-axis shows (from dark to light) the tones within the image. The y-axis represents the amount of this tone within the image.
Histogram is King
When reviewing your photographs it is always a good idea to remain aware of your histogram, as clipped highlights or shadows may not render as such on the camera's small LCD.
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP
Adobe Photoshop is an industry standard photographic enhancement software. It is the most commonly used program among professional and amateur photographers. It is and incredibly broad program with many functions.

One of the most important functions to photographers is 'curves'.
Curves
Begin by opening photoshop and loading a photograph that you have taken in today's session. You can do this by going to File>Open>Browse>Locate your file.
Next access 'curves' by clicking on the Image menu, then adjustments and curves.
Within curves you will find a graph, behind which you will see an image of your histogram. Curves are controlled by placing points on the diagonal line and adjusting them to increase or decrease values of that tone.

Curves can also be used to control colours by accessing the drop-down channels menu.

To add some contrast to your image, try creating a gentle S shape.
Recap question:
What three lighting techniques have we used so far?
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