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Transcript of Conservation
Biodiversity should be conserved
Sustainable Timber Management
Timber has many uses and is logged all over the world. Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
By:-Preksha, Somya and Ruthvik
is the process of looking after the environment and protecting it. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world. This attempts to save or increase the number of the endangered species.
Habitat destruction is the process in which a natural habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity. Habitat destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization. Clearing habitats for agriculture is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, logging, trawling and urban sprawl.
Habitat destruction is one of the main causes for the extinction of several species.
Rainforests are undisputed champions of biodiversity.
Covering less than 2 percent of the Earth's total surface area, the world's rainforests are home to 50 percent of the Earth's plants and animals. No one knows exactly how many species live in the world's tropical rainforests — estimates range from 3 to 50 million species.
The wetlands are also under great threat. Several people drain wetlands so that it can be more easily farmed.
People build roads and buildings on it and hence, destroy whatever was earlier present on that land.
Animals are farmed in large numbers on land that cannot really produce enough vegetation to support them. This results in the land becoming a semi desert.
Did you know?
An area of a rainforest the size of a football field is being destroyed each second.
Coppicing is an English term for a traditional method of woodland management which takes advantage of the fact that many trees make new growth from the stump or roots if cut down.
Trees are cut down to just above ground level and then left to regrow. This is done every 10-15 years, repeatedly harvesting wood from the same trees, which just keep regrowing.
Often, a forest will be divided up into several areas, and each year the trees in just one area are coppiced. This means that, at any one time, different parts of the wood contain trees of different sizes. This provides different habitats that suit many different species, so that biodiversity may be even higher than it would be if wood was not harvested at all.
The wood that is harvested is of quite a small diameter. It is not much use for building, though it can be used to make furniture or to make charcoal.
In order to obtain larger pieces of wood for more useful purposes, we need to cut down large, mature trees. This can only be done by cutting down all the trees in an area, this is known as CLEAR FELLING.
Clear Felling is extremely harmful to the environment because it completely destroys the forest habitat. It also leaves the soil open to erosion by rain and wind.
SELECTIVE FELLING is when only a particular type of trees in an area are cut down but others are left to grow. Selective Felling is better than Clear Felling but it still results in massive loss of biodiversity.
Did you know?
Up to 70% of the developed or first world homes are made from timber due to energy savings.
Timber is a natural insulator and is 5 times better than concrete, 10 times better than brick and 350 times better than steel.
Timber is easy to craft onsite and provides unlimited design flexibility. It can be trimmed shaped and crafted to suit any situation.
Sewage is waste liquid which has come from houses, industry and other parts of the villages, towns and cities. It is mostly water, but also contains many other substances including urine and faeces, toilet paper, detergents, oil and many other chemicals.
Sewage treatment involves:
• The removal of solids by physical screening or sedimentation
• The removal of soluble and fine suspended organic pollutants by biological oxidation and adsorption processes.
Both forms of treatment produce sludge as by-products and these have to be treated and used or disposed of in an economical and environmentally acceptable way.
METHODS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT
Raw sewage goes through screens which trap large objects such as grit. The screened liquid is then left for a while in settlement tanks, where any other insoluble particles drift to the bottom and form a sediment.
The liquid from the settlement tanks is sprinkled over a trickling filter bed which is made of small stones and clinker.
Many aerobic microorganisms, like protoctists (amoeba) and fungi which feed on bacteria and soluble nutrients, live on the surface of the stones. The liquid trickles quite slowly through the stones, giving the microorganisms plenty of time to work on it and as the water drains out of the bottom of the bed, it looks clear, smells clean, contains virtually no pathogenic organisms, and can safely be allowed to run into a river or a sea.
The liquid from the settlement tanks runs into a tank called an aeration which contains aerobic microorganism (mostly bacteria and protoctists) oxygen is provided by bubbling air through the tank. These aerobic microorganisms make the sewage harmless.
Both the methods can run into problems if the sewage contains substances which harm microorganisms like heavy metals, disinfectants, or large quantities of detergents.
To solve these problems, the contaminated sewage can be diluted before being allowed to enter the trickling filter bed or the activated sludge tank.
The solid, sludge, has valuable organic matter so it is also digested by microorganisms. This produces methane which can be used as fuel. Some solid is still left after the process which is used as fertilizer.
Paper is made from trees so if it is pulped again it can make paper which will save trees. Trees used for making paper are actually grown so there is no damage to the ecosystem.
The collecting and transportation costs may be so much that it may exceed the costs of making new paper.
Plastics can also be recycled and since many plastics are non-biodegradable, they cause pollution so recycling them will reduce pollution.
Did you know?
11 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent emissions were avoided by recycling paper and cardboard in 2008, the equivalent of taking around 3½ million cars off the road!
When tropical rainforests are cut down or burnt, the habitats of thousands of different species are destroyed.
Obviously, logging cannot be completely stopped. We must at least try to limit its damaging effects.
Strong re-growth from the coppice stools provides a renewable source of timber for many uses.
Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by humanity, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various ecosystems.
"The conservation of natural resources is the fundamental problem. Unless we solve that problem, it will avail us little to solve all others."
- Theodore Roosevelt
Some natural resources such as sunlight and air can be found everywhere, and are known as ubiquitous resources. There are very few resources that are considered inexhaustible. The vast majority of resources are exhaustible, which means they have a finite quantity, and can be depleted if managed improperly. Hence, natural resources must be conserved.
Sewage is a water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed from a community. Also known as wastewater, it is more than 99% water and is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical constituents and the bacteriological organisms that it contains.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from waste water, including household sewage and runoff (effluents). It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer).