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Gettysburg and Lincoln:
Transcript of Gettysburg and Lincoln:
Let's Review: Significant Events and Factors Leading to War
The Missouri Compromise
"In all that territory . . . which lies north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, not included within the limits of the state, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted,
shall be, and is hereby, forever prohibited."
Factors Leading to War: The Kansas Nebraska Act
"When admitted as a State or States, the said Territory or any portion of the same, shall be received into the Union with or without slavery, as their Constitution may prescribe at the time of the admission…"
Reactions from the North
“…the Southern gentlemen have pressed the cause, not only of human slavery but of slavery extension…the North has maintained an unbroken silence. The time has surely come when the voice of freedom should find an utterance.” Horace Mann
“They [African Americans] are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word ‘citizens' in the Constitution, and can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States.”
“…the act of Congress which prohibited a citizen from holding and owning property [slaves] …north of the line therein mentioned is not warranted by the Constitution and is therefore void…”
Chief Justice Roger Taney, Majority Opinion
Thomas Jefferson's Opinion
“..the Missouri question aroused and filled me with alarm…I have been among the most sanguine in believing that our Union would be of long duration. I now doubt it much.”
letter to William Short, April 11, 1820
John Brown's Raid
Harper's Ferry, VA
“I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.”
The Country in 1860
Total Slave Holders in 1860
Farms Larger than 1000 Acres in 1860
Capital in Manufacturing in 1860
Males in Manufacturing in 1860
Source: University of Virginia, Historical Census Browser, http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu/index.html
Harriet Beecher Stowe,
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
"He who can read this greatest of all American Tales unmoved, must have been very successful in hardening his heart."—Barre Patriot.
"It is a fiction, not for the sake of more effectually communicating truth; but for the purpose of more effectually disseminating a slander. It is a fictitious or fanciful representation for the sake of producing fictitious or false impressions. Fiction is its form and falsehood is its end."--Southern Literary MessengerReviews
Abraham Lincoln: President of a Divided Nation
"I therefore consider that in view of the Constitution and the laws the Union is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability, I shall take care, as the Constitution itself expressly enjoins upon me, that the laws of the Union be faithfully executed in all the States.
"--Abraham Lincoln (First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1961)
Constitution of the Confederate States of America (March 11, 1861)
“We, the people of the Confederate States, each State acting in its sovereign and independent character, in order to form a permanent federal government, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Confederate States of America.”
Seccession: The South Forms a New Nation
Lincoln Takes Office and Addresses the Southern States
"In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend it." --Abraham Lincoln (First Inaugural Address)
"Our present condition . . . illustrates the American Idea that governments rest upon the consent of the governed, and that it is the right of the people to alter or abolish governments whenever they become destructive ofthe ends for which they were established." --Jefferson Davis (Inaugural Address)"
The Men Who Fought
Pvt. Samuel Crabble Letter to
His Wife who was enslaved
i look forward to a brighter day When i shall have the opertunity of seeing you in the full enjoyment of fredom. great is the outpouring of the colered peopl that is now rallying with the hearts of lions against that very curse that has seperated you an me yet we shall meet again . . . when this ungodly rebellion shall be put down and the curses of our land is trampled under our feet i am a soldier now and i shall use my utmost endeavor to strike at the rebellion and the heart of this system that so long has kept us in chains . . . remain your own afectionate husband until death—Samuel Cabble
Maj. Sullivan Ballou letter to his wife Sarah
General Robert E. Lee, Letter to His Siblings (April 21, 1861)
"With all my devotion to the Union and the feeling of loyalty and duty of an American citizen, I have not been able to make up my mind to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home. I have therefore resigned my commission in the Army, and save in defense of my native State, with the sincere hope that my poor services may never be needed, I hope I may never be called on to draw my sword. I know you will blame me; but you must think as kindly of me as you can, and believe that I have endeavored to do what I thought right."--Robert E. Lee
Ulysses S. Grant, Letter to His Father (April 21, 1861)
"Whatever may have been my political opinions before, I have but one sentiment now. That is, we have a Government, and laws and a flag, and they must all be sustained. There are but two parties now, traitors and patriots and I want hereafter to be ranked with the latter, and I trust, the stronger party. . . . My advice would be to leave where you are if you are not safe with the views you entertain. I would never stultify my opinion for the sake of a little security." --Ulysses S. Grant
The Situation as the Summer of 1863 Arrives
Even though there were Union victories on the western front, the Confederate armies under the command of Robert E. Lee, had defeated the Union army in key battles in the East.
Many people placed more importance on the east because that is where the capitals of the United States and the Confederate States were located.
In the West, United States military forces under Ulysses S. Grant have surrounded Vicksburg, Mississippi, which was a significant point that controlled access to the Mississippi River.
"That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom." --Abraham Lincoln
Emancipation Proclimation January 1, 1863
"First Reading of the Emancipation Proclimation of President Lincoln," Francis Bicknell Carpenter (1864)
Wikipedia Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Reading_of_the_Emancipation_Proclamation_of_President_Lincoln
Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863
Ken Burns, The Civil War
Lincoln at Gettysburg
Early on dedication day President Lincoln visited part of the battlefield near the Seminary with Secretary of State William Seward. Later that morning Lincoln rode in a large procession from the Wills house about one mile to the cemetery dedication site. A resident on the parade route reported that Lincoln bowed "with a modest smile and uncovered his head to the throng of women, men and children that greeted him from the doors and windows."
History in Photographs
Battle of Gettysburg
Matthew Brady: Photography and the Civil War
Lincoln granted permission in 1861 for Brady to photograph the war with the proviso that Brady finance the project himself. His efforts to document the American Civil War on a grand scale by bringing his photographic studio right onto the battlefields earned Brady his place in history. Despite the obvious dangers, financial risk, and discouragement of his friends, Brady is later quoted as saying "I had to go. A spirit in my feet said 'Go,' and I went." His first popular photographs of the conflict were at the First Battle of Bull Run, in which he got so close to the action that he barely avoided capture.
Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
How the Speech Was Received
Analysis of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
The Legacy of Gettysburg
The Plot to Kill Abraham Lincoln
“His mail was infested with brutal and vulgar menace, and warnings of all sorts came to him from zealous or nervous friends,” Nicolay wrote. “But he had himself so sane a mind, and a heart so kindly, even to his enemies, that it was hard for him to believe in political hatred so deadly as to lead to murder.”
A timetable for Lincoln’s journey was supplied to the press. From the moment the train departed Springfield, anyone wishing to cause harm would be able to track his movements in unprecedented detail, even, at some points, down to the minute. All the while, moreover, Lincoln continued to receive daily threats of death by bullet, knife, poisoned ink—and, in one instance, spider-filled dumpling.
“Never, never shall Lincoln be president,” [Assassination conspirator Cypriano] Ferrandini vowed. “He must die—and die he shall.”
Leadership, Courage, Discipline, & Sacrifice
Change the Plan or Persist?
"There were two elements in the Cabinet–-the radical and the conservative. Mr. Lincoln was placed at the head of the official table, between two groups, nearest that representing the radical; but the uniting point of both. The chief powers of a government are War and Finance: the ministers of these were at his right–-the Secretary of War, symbolizing the great struggle, in the immediate foreground; the Secretary of the Treasury, actively supporting the new policy, standing by the President’s side.... To the Secretary of State, as the great expounder of the principles of the Republican party... would the attention of all at such a time be given.... The... chief officers of the government were thus brought in accordance with their relations to the administration, nearest the person of the President, who, with the manuscript proclamation in his hand, which he had just read, was represented leaning forward, listening to, and intently considering the views presented by the Secretary of State."[Francis Carpenter]
July 4, 1863
The South Secedes
December 20, 1860 - June 8, 1861
February 23, 1861
Abraham Lincoln elected 16th President of the United States November 6, 1860