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Transcript of Particle Acclerator
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
What is an accelerator?
An accelerator takes a particle, speeds it up using electromagnetic fields, and crashes the particle into a target or other particles.
Where can you find an accelerator?
Particle accelerators vary from your computer screen to your television to something as large as our particle accelerator (LHC) itself.
Linear accelerators, in which the particle starts at one end and comes out the other.
Accelerators built in a circle, in which the particle goes around and around.
Major Accelerator Labs:
Stanford linear accelerator (SLAC), Fermi National Laboratory Accelerator (Fermilab),
and CERN "The Large Hadron Collider ( LHC )".
The Large Hadron Collider is a giant particle accelerator made by CERN and is the world's largest particle accelerator when it was completed in 2008. The LHC is located near Geneva Switzerland and is located 50 to 175 meters underground on the borders between France and Switzerland. It has large particle accelerators that are built in circles to speed the particles to near the speed of light (300000 Km/s). The LHC is 27 kilometers in circumference. It costs more than 6.03 billion Swiss francs (4.5 billion Dollars). The LHC is funded and built in collaboration with over 10,000 engineers and scientists from over 100 nations, as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.
the purpose of the LHC
The LHC accelerates protons to extremely high energy (7 TeV) and makes them collide to create new particles which can be studied. In doing this, the scientists hope that we will be able to recreate the conditions of the Big Bang in order to understand and answer the most fundamental questions of the universe: How was matter created? Why do we have mass? How was the universe formed ? As well as trying to find new physics, new theories, and new particles that haven't seen before. For example: The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is one of the greatest discoveries of our time that has been made and announced at the LHC on 4 July 2012.
The type of the particle that they mostly use is Proton and lead ions.
The Principle of a Particle Accelerator
A circular particle accelerator uses electric fields to accelerate electrically charged particles to high speeds and magnetic fields to make them travel in a circular path.
As the particles such as protons enter the electric fields, they accelerate and travels through a vacuum tube that has magnets around they to provide a magnetic fields.
When the protons entering the magnetic fields perpendicular to its direction experiences a force perpendicular to its motion, so they will have a circular motion.
As they go around and around and passes the electric fields they gain more energy and become faster. In the end they will crash together inside a detector.
The basic mathematics behind a particle accelerator
The Design of CERN’s Particle Accelerator
p and Pb: Linear Accelerators (Linac 2).
PSB: Proton Synchrotron Booster.
PS: Proton Synchrotron.
SPS: Super Proton Synchrotron.
LHC: Large Hadron Collider
ATLAS: A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS.
ALICE: A Large Ion Collider Experiment.
CMS: Compact Muon Solenoid.
Let's follow as it goes through the LHC:
1) Put hydrogen gas into the chamber.
2) Hydrogen atoms goes through electric field to strip
off its electrons.
3) Apply voltage on the remaining (+charge) nuclei.
4) Voltage causes velocity:
5) Protons leave accelerator with energy 50 MeV
1#) Linear Accelerators (Linac 2):
2#) Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB):
After detecting and analyzing many particle collisions in the LHC, scientist found and discovered the elementary particles of the protons and the neutrons. These subatomic particles are called Quarks and there are 6 types of quarks: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom.
The LHC has five particles accelerators
and four detectors:
1) It is made up of 4 identical rings.
2) They receive protons from The Linac 2 and accelerate them to 1.4GeV to enter the PS (Proton Synchrotron).
3) They are small with 157m circumference.
3#) Proton Synchrotron (PS):
1) It is the oldest accelerator at CERN.
2) Protons leave it with energy 25 GeV.
3) The mass of a proton become 25 times heavier in it, because the speed of the proton is close to the speed of light.
4) The ring is about 628m circumference.
4#) Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS):
1) The second-largest machine in CERN’s accelerator complex.
2) The ring is about 7 kilometers in circumference.
3) It takes protons from PS and send them to the large hadron collider (LHC).
4) Some protons leave clockwise, others leave counter-clockwise.
5) Protons leave accelerator with energy 450 GeV.
5#) Large Hadron Collider (LHC):
1) LHC is the world’s biggest and most powerful particle accelerator.
2) The ring is about 27 Kilometer.
3) It has two tubes kept at ultrahigh vacuum for CC and CW rotations.
4) Protons will travel 11000 times in a second and it is speed is so near to the speed of light.
5) Protons become 7000 times heavier than they are at rest.
6) Before any collision the LHC must be chilled to -271.25 which is colder than the outer space.
The Relativistic effects
1) As an object travels closer to the speed of light its mass increases and becomes heavier. For example when a proton enters the LHC which accelerates the proton to 0.9999999991 times the speed of light, the proton becomes 7000 times heavier.
According to Einstein relativity theory:
2) If an observer is at rest and an object is moving to a speed near to the speed of light, he/she would observe it to be a shorter in length.
This picture below would show you the idea clearly :
3) The general idea of the time dilation is: as an object approach the speed of light, its time slows down, while everything else around continues with constant rate. In a sense, time dilation
causes you to travel into the future which is
very cool thing but it is impossible.
A proton is made up of 3 quarks : 2 ‘up’ quarks and 1 ‘down’ quark.
A neutron is also made of 3 quarks : 1 ‘up’ quark and 2 ‘down’ quarks.
Scientist also described why is the proton has a positive charge while a neutron has zero charge by giving the up quark the value of +2/3 and the down quark the value of -1/3.