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Properties of Water

Learn the Unique properties of water. Resources: Modern Chemistry: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston

Renee Robinson

on 1 April 2016

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Transcript of Properties of Water

Hydrogen Bonding
Hydrogen Bonding: Hydrogen acts as a bond between two electronegative atoms.
In water ... the positive hydrogen is attracted to the slightly negative oxygen of another water molecule; thus, making hydrogen act as a bond.
Remember... Water is a polar molecule!
Hydrogen bonding accounts for a large number of water's unique properties.
Higher temperature means higher kinetic energy between water molecules
Hydrogen bonds break apart with higher kinetic energy.
Water expands when it becomes a solid (ice) because of the open rigid structure the water molecules form.
liquid water is also more dense than ice because water in its liquid state can pack closer together than water in its solid state
Thus, ice floats on water
Hydrogen bonding also affects water's physical properties
Low Vapor Pressure
High Specific heat capacity
High Heat of vaporization
High boiling point
For the size of a water molecule, it is unusual for it to have these values.
These properties are unusual because of the strong hydrogen bonding that must be overcome.
These properties of water allow it to be used industrially for many purposes.
Old steam engines
Coolants for factories
Surface Tension
A force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface areas to the smallest possible size.
Water has very high surface tension
This is a result of the high attractive forces between water molecules due to the hydrogen bonds
Capillary Action
The attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid.
Responsible for the movement of water up a tube against gravity. The water molecules are attracted to the solid tube and thus move up the tube.
Same thing happens when water moves up a paper towel.
This is also the reason a meniscus occurs in a test tube and graduated cylinder
Adhesion and Cohesion
Adhesion: Attraction of molecules to other substances.
Cohesion: Attraction of molecules to each other.
Essentially adhesion and cohesion give water it's "stickiness"
Universal Solvent
Solution: a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase
Solute: The substance dissolved in a solution
Solvent: the dissolving medium in a solution
"Like dissolves like": meaning similar molecules will dissolve molecules that are similar to them.
polar/ionic solvents dissolve polar/ionic solutes
non polar solvents dissolve non polar solvents
Water said to be the universal solvent because it can dissolve more substances than any other on earth.
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