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Transcript of South Africa
Piet Maritz Retief and
King Dingane The Treaty of Vereeniniging The Union of South Africa George Whybrow History: 20th Century Rachel Tristan The British Colony The First Prime Minister was a former Afrikaner military leader The Native Land Act of 1913 After the first elections the South African Party, comprisedof Afrikaners and English speakers, came to power. Blacks were not allowed to vote. National Party (NP) formed in 1914 Daniel Malan became NP's leader in 1930's
Wanted Afrikaners to control and redistribute the countries wealth
Spoke on white supremacy
1948 NP won elections Apartheid The Population Registration Act of 1950 placed South Africa into four categories: white, Africa, colored and Indian
Group Areas Act of 1950 prohibited members of different races from living in the same neighborhoods. Blacks were moved to ten different "tribal homelands" known as Bantustans.
District 6 Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act of 1950 Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953 Structure Organizations emerge African National Congress (ANC) founded in 1912 - initially a peaceful movement lead by Nelson Mandela
Pan African Congress (PAC) founded in 1959 was a more radical organization NP had domestic support, but did not receive international support until Cold Ward by United States. FaCTORS IN sHIFT TO dEMOCRACY Rising Dissatisfaction of blacks Demographics: Decline in white population, rise in black population Blacks lived in appalling conditions
United Democratic Front (UDF) formed in 1983 and initiated strikes and boycotts against the Apartheid.
1985 government called a state of emergency
1988 banned UDF. ANC launched guerilla war against the Apartheid Economic Decline Stagnant economy/ many countries placed embargos on South Africa in the 1980's
Growing gap between the well to do whites (minority) and the poor blacks (majority)
Homeland concept inefficient and costly Leadership Changes F.W. de Klerk became the President in 1989 Repealed the Group Areas Act, Population Registration Act and the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act
Legalized ANC and PAC and re-instated their leaders, such as Mandela Post Apartheid Interim constitution in 1993
Led to Democratic Elections and majority rule in 1994
In 1993 both Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk received the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts in South Africa. The Empire Strikes Back Second Boer War (1889-1902) President Kruger Adria Spinelli Modern South Africa South Africa:
Current Political Structure Government Type: Republic 31 May 1961 became the Republic of South Africa
4 February 1997 a new constitution came into effect Head of State and Government: President Jacob Zuma
- Since 9 May 2009 President's cabinet is chosen by the President
President is elected by the National Assembly for a five year term - renewable for one term Post Apartheid Politics: Dominance of the African National Congress Legal Jurisprudence: English Colonial Legacy
(English Common Law) South Africa:
Today's Foreign Policy South Africa's Vulnerable Borders
2007 Military placement along Zimbabwe's border Refugee Sanctuary - Chad, Somalia, Burundi, and
miscellaneous states within Africa Illicit Drugs: Transshipment center for heroin, hashish, and cocaine and producer of marijuana South African Development Community, African Union,
and the United Nations 1979: First Nuclear African State South Africa:
Today's Headlines Resurgency of Apartheid Hatred - Permeated into all realms of Society
President Zuma's successes and failures
Corruption of Government officials Geography and Economy Michelle Villanueva Total area: 1,219,090 sq km
Located on the southern tip of Africa
Borders Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe
Coastline: 2,789 km
Climate: Mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast
Vast interior plateau
Natural Resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas Arable land: 12.1%
Problem with prolonged droughts
Lack of arterial rivers or lakes to water crops Demand for water is higher than the supply
Pollution of rivers
Air pollution and acid rain
Soil erosion and desertification GDP: $495.1 billion, #26 in the world
GDP - real growth rate: -1.8%
GDP per capita (PPP) $10,100
By sector: Agriculture: 3.5%; Industry: 32.1%; Services: 64.4%
Unemployment rate: 24%
Inflation rate: 7.2%
Population below poverty line: 50%
Gini Index: 65, 2nd in the world
Exports: $67.93 billion- gold, diamonds, platinum
Japan, United States
Imports: $70.24 billion - machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, scientific instruments
Debt: $73.84 billion
Abundant supply of natural resources
18th largest stock exchange in the world
Infrastructure that supports distribution of goods throughout the country
Agriculture products: corn, wheat, sugarcase, fruits, vegetables
Industries: mining- largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium; automobile assembly; metalworking; machinery; textiles
GDP fell nearly 2% in 2009, global financial crisis
High unemployment and
outdated infrastructure keeps
Exchange rates: rand(ZAR) per US dollar - 8.5
DFI $125.7 billion at home
$63.57 billion abroad Remaining problems from apartheid Poverty
No room for advancement for the disadvantaged class
Shortage of public transportation
Economic Policy: fiscally conservative with emphasis on using state-owned enterprises to deliver basic services to low income areas and increase job growth. Demographics and Language Samantha Swift Population 56 million people in 2010
2% Asian or Indian ethnicities
Extreme inequality among
High immigration rates from other countries. Effects of the Apartheid Immigration from Europe dropped in the late 70's and early 80's
No longer white supremacy in all senses
More equality among the races and less favorability to whites AIDS/ HIV Among the highest in the world
20% of adults will die from AIDS each year
Life expectancy is 50 years old
Trends in Ethnic groups Poverty highest among largest population of Africans
- About 60% of blacks of impoverished
Poverty is confined many times to location based on racial immigration
Language 2nd highest number of recognized languages
11 languages all together
English is seen as lingua franca but the main language spoken is isiKhulu
Desire to maintain culture Culture Christy Willis In focus: 2010 FIFA World Cup
Alicia Starkey Setting the Stage Planning of infrastructure improvements started after the 2004 announcement of South Africa as host of the 2010 World Cup
Major problems to consider:
- Crime rate is one of largest in the world
- 20,000 South Africans are murdered
each year, which is 9 times higher
than in the US.
- Government Corruption
- Economic inequality
- South Africa has a Gini Index of 65
on a scale of 100
Past Hosting Experience 1995 Rugby World Cup
2003 Cricket World Cup
Women's Golf World Cup 2005 and 2006
Fifa officials display confidence in South Africa The World is Watching:
South Africans have hope "The World Cup is about the future of our country and creating a better society"
- John Perlman, South
African radio journalist
"We are waiting. It is time for the people to stop putting us down and come see for themselves that Africa can do it... For many people like me in South Africa, soccer is a way to escape. We live it."
- Gordon Mokoyane, Johannesburg
street vendor Economics and Infrastructure Advancement
New world class airports
- OR Tambo International, also airports in Capetown
and Manguan, and King Shaka International New and improved soccer facilities
- Construction of 10 stadiums created 130,000 jobs
Infrastructure development will add 4.9 billion rand to the real GDP in 2010 World Cup will bring 21.3 billion rand into South Africa and create approximately 160,000 more jobs.
Number of expected World Cup visitors is down to 373,000 from 483,000.
Though visitors are expected to stay longer and spend more.
- World Cup visitors are planning to see an average of 5 games an increase from 2.6 in the 2006 Cup recent Problems and Additional Issues April 12, 2010 death of white supremesist Eugene Terre' blanche creates tension.
Aids Epidimic Music
Mixture of traditional tribal music and western influences, especially from missionaries who emphasized choral and orchestral music. Food
Often referred to as the Rainbow, because of its rich variety.
Traditional Tribal Diet includes meat , root vegetables, leafy greens, berries, millet, and protein rich insects.
When Colonial rulers brought in Thai and Indian slaves, they introduced new cuisines into the local pallatte.
Populated centers now feature unlimited numbers of cuisine from all over the world
South Africa was banned from the Olympics from 1964 - 1992 due to Apartheid policies.
Popular sports include canoeing, cricket, cycling, golf, rugby, soccer, tennis, and recently Australian Rules Football.
Race and gender issues are still very visible in the sports arena.
80% Christianity (Majority Protestant)
Other religions with 2% or less of pupulation
- Buddhism / Chinese folk
- African Traditional
- "Other" Mama Africa
Miriam Makeba (1932-2008)
Known as the voice of protest against the apartheid, and was exiled from South Africa because of it.
3 centers of Government: