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BROADCAST RADIO

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by

Jenny Lam

on 12 November 2016

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Transcript of BROADCAST RADIO

THE ONE MAN BAND JOURNALIST
RADIO NEWS REPORTING
ON THE HOUR SUMMARY
Ω
RECORDING SOUND
EXAMPLE: BRING THE LISTENERS TO THE SCENE
MICHELLE OBAMA
SQ1 : GENERAL STREET
Actuality: general street sound; traffic; man working on stone work

Interview with stone worker
fade out: actuality
Sq2: Rana plaza:
( Actuality traffic; back ground sound of the vicinity

Fade out of actuality
Interviewer via translator
This week, First Lady, Michelle Obama was doing something she loves to do.

Talking about nutrition with kids.

She hosted the first state dinner for kids, welcoming 54 eight to twelve year olds and their parents to the White House.

{SOT} Is this not cool? This is just so cool. Very cool

{ Fade out: applause}

Mrs. Obama stood before a colourful backdrop, set up for the event in the East Room of the White House.

Portrait of George and Marshall Washington on either side.

Dress in a blue and green satin print dress, a simple strand of pearls spread around her neck, the First Lady spread her famously toned arms wide, before joining in the applause congratulating the tiny chefs , winners of a healthy lunchtime contest.

{SOT} You came up with dishes that were packed with nutritious and delicious ingredients. Dishes that are good for you, but more importantly, they taste good too. See! You can have it.

And while the kids started eating their yummy cabbage slaw sloppy Joes and their quinoa blackbean corn salad, the First Lady introduced a surprise guest.

{Fade in: applause}
{sot} They look spectacular. Hello everybody

President Obama said he heard there was a state dinner going on

{sot} And usually I get invited to the state dinners. So this time I just have to crash.
THE RADIO PRESENTER
Magic 105.4 FM
( Drive Time)
" Think about what they are doing. Driving? Cooking? What do they want to know?"

" Talk to one person. Personalise your links

Capital Radio. Now BBC Sussex

" Think of who is listener is.
Connect with the person.
BULLETIN: rundown

- A list of experts
- The
phoner
-
Kicker
: a light hearted story just before ther weather

-Read your own script out loud; check for pronunciation; avoid repeating the same words
- Sound interested; pause between stories
- Understand the story
- Keep level
- Keep correct distance from mic
- Stress on the right words; watch out for quotes

Angie Greaves
THE RUNDOWN

Prioritize the stories according to news values
- timing
- impact
- proximity
- relevance
Thinking of the number of people affected is often a good way of considering impact

ACTUALITY
= sound recorded on location
The aim: bring the listeners to the scene
TELLING STORIES WITH SOUND
The microphone can pick up what you might not notice
Example: paralympics
Exercise: close your eyes for a minute; don't talk and note all the sound you can pick up
When recording, always record the
WILD TRACK
of the location for a minute for editing purposes.

Choose your location carefully and bring the listeners there
different radio stations use different equipment
iRig
- normally used for guitars
- high quality conversion of sound to iPhone
- send recording back to station by email
MP3 player
voice recorder
iTalk
- broadcast quality
- during a VO, make sure it is about 8 inches away from your mouth to avoid popping
wind sock
Comrex box
- for outside broadcast
- a mini radio console with mixers
- sends several tracks via 4G to radio station e.g. several interviwees
Luci Live
OUTSIDE BROADCAST
RADIO INTERVIEW
Sit close to the interviewee
- 90 degrees
- knees almost touching
- away from loud background noise e.g. computers, electrical appliances,
neon light
- sitting close means less mic movement
- beware of any jewellery, coins etc.

Same questioning technique as TV
- open ended questions
- one question at a time
THE RADIO PACKAGE
Types of sound
reportage, interviews, commentary, actuality, music, wild track; music
Opening
words or sound should be grabbing
-avoid cutting your voiceover next to a recording of your own voice on location

- the difference in background noise won't sound good

" I began by asking him....."
http://rthk.hk/rthk/news/newsbulletins/index.htm
TEASER:
- one sentence each on three stories
- usually the top story, one in the middle of the newscast and maybe a sport story

KEEP UP THE PACE
- 2 min:5 stories; 3 min.:8 stories; 4 min.:11 stories
- a mix of voice pieces ( 35 sec. max) and clips ( 15 sec. max)
WRITING A CUE
- They can only listen to it once

- Many of the same rules for television writing apply

- One idea per sentence

- Avoid repeating the same words within a sentence

- One sentence per paragraph on the cue sheet

- Pronunciation tips if needed

- Basically an inverted pyramid

- Start with LATEST INFORMATION

- Writing the spoken words therefore read it out...
does it sound good?

- Know your listeners. Different writing styles, different running orders
WRITING INTO A CLIP/BITE
- one line to give an idea what the bite is about

- who is speaking where and when
Example:

Police commander,Cheung Siu-fai of the East Kowloon District explains why the students were arrested

DUR: 6 sec.
IN: They charged into
OUT: headquarters on Arsenal Steet

(" They charged into the government compound. This is a resticted area. Some of the protestors were armed with sticks and pieces of metal. Seven people are under arrest. They will be taken to the police headquarters on Arsenal Street")

- The reader needs to know the IN and OUT cues of the bite and the duration


Stories constantly being updated

SIGNPOSTING
:so listeners know where they are in the bulletin
e.g.'in sport';
'overseas'; 'locally';" the weather'

TIMING: down to the second.Same in television
RECORDING INDOORS
- control the environment
- check for acoustics
- clap to check for echo
- avoid bathrooms, kitchens
- heavy materials absorb sound
- check for humming electrical appliances
CHECKING RECORDING LEVELS
- direct the microphone at the source of the sound
- ask interviewee to speak to check levels
e.g. tell me about your holiday ( NOT testing testing)
You want to check the ups and downs of the voice
- check and re-check levels when you move location
USE HEADPHONES
- not always possible but it will save you a lot of work later
OTHER TIPS
- use microphone stand
- bring long cables and gaffer tapes
- you don't want to crouching on the floor!
THE MICROPHONE
- omindirectional
- interviews and close up sound

- the sound will only be as good as your microphone can handle
- clip on
- make a loop withe the cable to secure on to clothing
- some are remote controlled
- for lengthy interviews so you don't have to move the microphone back and forth

- gun mic
- unidirectional
- used in TV so the sound source can be further away from the reporter
- ribbon mic/lip mic
- at close range only
- high quality
- the ribbon refers to a metal strip that acts as a diaphragm
- use actuality to
fade in and out
as transition between sequences
ELEMENTS OF A RADIO PACKAGE
- voice over
- bite/grab
- actuality
( FADE DOWN AND OUT)
---------------------
- VO
- grab
( FADE UNDER)
- VO
( FADE UP: to Obama)
( FADE UNDER)
- VO
( FADE UP: Obama)
( FADE UNDER..THEN OUT)
------------------------
- VO
- grab
- vo
- grab (Obama)
- vo
- grab ( analyst)
--------------------------
- actuality (Jackie Grimshaw)
- vo
- grab ( Grimshaw)




EDITING FOR RADIO
Use Adobe Audition
-start a new MULTITRACK file
- import your tracks
- practice fading IN and OUT and fading UNDER your tracks from one sequence to the next
- soft or hard fade by pulling the fader up and down

FADE IN AND OUT
CROSS FADE BETWEEN TRACKS
FADER
Bulletins can be 1,2,3,4,or 5 minutes

- Nut graf/explanation/elaboration of the first sentence

- Background

- Next development

- FLEXIBILIY: the latter sentences, especially the last one, can be omitted if time runs out

- similar to the headline and the intro of a newspaper story

- get them interested in finding out more, therefore start with the action

- some human interest always works!

- read it out. Does it read well? Too long? split up your sentences. Tongue twisters?
THE 15 SECOND CUE
Listen to your interviews.
Select the bites

Write the script around the bites
Record the voiceover

Add wild tracks for transition in between sequences
Add FADE IN/OUT

Cut the two together.
Adjust levels

Done!
.

CROSS FADE
by merging two tracks together.
You can use the FADER to manipulate the cross fade by dragging it back and forth

http://rthk.hk/rthk/news/englishnews/news.htm?main&20150305&56&1081862
-the 5 Ws
-elaborate
-what's next
-background

http://rthk.hk/rthk/news/englishnews/news.htm?main&20150305&56&1081868
Cue: 10 - 15 sec
Clips: 10-25 sec.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b053s85r#auto
Have a good mix of cues, clips and packages
http://www.bbc.co.uk/academy/journalism/skills/editing/article/art20130702112133370
A DAY IN THE LIFE OF MA BEEP!
PAINTING PICTURES WITH WORDS
http://www.radioacademy.org/hall-of-fame-member/richard-dimbleby/
You are their other four senses i.e.vision, temperature, smell, taste
EXERCISE
WHAT TO RECORD?
Interviews
- on location, find a suitable spot
- main interviews should be in a quiet setting
Wild track
- approx. 20 seconds
- transitions
Actuality
- as much as possible
- at least 5-6 for a 2 minute story
Voice over
- always record some on location
e.g.observations, describe significant sound
BEFORE YOU START
Angle ?
Flow of scenes?
Sounds in each scene?
Outline a script
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04ckntp#play
BBC: Assignment : "Highway to Hell"
Walk from this room to somewhere and back in 20 minutes
Record:
- 10 types of actuality sound
- yourself describing one of the locations for approx. 20 seconds
- wild track of each location (approx.10 sec.)
- transition sound in between locations
Full transcript