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Opposition Groups Against Tsar Nicholas II 1903-1914
Transcript of Opposition Groups Against Tsar Nicholas II 1903-1914
(1903-1914) By Kwan Yee, Kirstie and Selina :) What were the key features of the opposition groups in Russia 1914? What were the important developments in the Social Democratic Party from 1903? Vladimir Lenin Importance of the split Social Revolutionary Party Octobrists Social Democrats Kadets Repression Lena Goldfieds Massacre Stolypin's Assassination Why was there widespread discontent in the years before 1914? Fundamental Laws were laid no sooner after the 1905 revolution died out, setting limitations towards the democracy
Withdrawal of liberal concessions of the people began- stricter rules were set upon the Duma each time a new one was established and voting systems became more difficult for the peasants.
Stolypin executed 1008 liberal radicals and exiled 21000 more to Siberia. Assassinated in September 1911by one of his men in the Okhrana (Russia's secret police) who turned out to be a leftist revolutionary
Stolypin was a key leader in Russia's tsarist government and after his death many agencies abandoned support for reform
Nicholas II lived a decadent lifestyle and was a weak, inept Tsar hence upon Stolypin's death the Russian government was in near chaos with the prime minister to repress opposition. Causes, events and results: Supported by high status members of the public such as university professors, lawyers, members of the zemstav and etc.
Early members mostly consisted of liberals.
Supported a constitutional monarchy - like the one of Great Britain's.
Slowly dwindled away. Original purpose = assist the Russian government in implementing the October Manifesto.
Supported a constitutional monarchy - like the Cadets - and the Duma.
Leader = Alexander Guchkov.
Supported by the upper and middle upper classes.
Later split into various groups.
Slowly dwindled away - like the Cadets.
Joined the Cadets in 1914 to call for reform against Peter Stolypin's policies. Supported the ideas of Karl Marx (Marxism) - author of Communist Manifesto.
Marx's prediction = Proletariat's would overthrow the rich capitalists by 'sharing the wealth'.
1903 they split into 2 - Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
Bolsheviks later led by Lenin.
Bolsheviks wanted to take action now believed Mensheviks' method would take too long. Divided between Marxism/terrorism.
Created a 'Fighting Organisation' to commit terrorist attacks against the government.
Hundreds of political assassinations.
Main alternative to the SDs. (Social Democrats)
Supported by the peasants - as they avoided their redemption payments for getting back their own land.
Most influential group up until 1917.
Confiscated land from the higher authorities - the Tsar, the nobles and the Orthodox Church. >Leader of the Bolsheviks
>Bolsheviks and Menshiveks started off as a big group
(Social Democrats) then split.
>Without the Bolsheviks there wouldn't have been a revolution
>Bolsheviks became the communist party of the soviet union The Bolsheviks and Menshiveks split in 1903 for a variety of reasons
1. They both had different ideas on how the social democratic labor party should be formed
2.Lenin thought that it would be easier to have a smaller organization made of professional revolutionaries to keep the Tsar's spies out
3.The parties disagreed on whether there should be a revolution or not (Mensheviks believed Russia wasn't ready for one)
4.They could not agree on who would lead the revolution
5. Attempts at reunification of the 2 groups by the Menshevik but Bolsheviks wanted to be independent.
6. If the 2 groups hadn;t have split the revolution would not have happened at that given time. Features: Features: Aims: To establish a constitutional monarchy. Features: Aims: To establish socialism.
Get rid of autocracy. Features: Aims: Give the peasants more land.
Remove power from the higher authorities.
Esatblish socialsm. Bolshevik Party Flag Bolshevik - propaganda poster Vladimir Lenin - Leader of Bolsheviks Pavel Axelrod, Julius Martov, Alexander Martinov - Leaders of Mensheviks Octobrist Party poster Kadets' Party poster Social Revolutionary Flag - international symbol for the proletarians Viktor Chernov -
Leader of the Social Revolutionary Party Causes: Caused by: Poor treatment of miners-
16 hour work days in hazardous conditions
Portions of miners' salaries often used to pay 'fines'.
Workers paid less if they preformed 'poorly'
700 accidents occurred in every 1000 miners Events In March 1912 over 6000 workers went on strike requesting 8 hour work days, 30% rise in wages, elimination of fines amongst other demands but were arrested by troops.
The next morning, 2500 unarmed people marched to the Nadezhdinsky goldfield complaining about the arest. They were met by soldiers who started shooting at the crowd, leaving 270 dead and 250 more wounded. Results Protests and strikes rose all over Russia
Revolutionary parties swung into action Causes Poor treatment of miners -
16 hour workdays in hazardous conditions
Portions of salaries often used to pay fines
Paid less if they preformed 'poorly'
700 accidents out of every 1000 miners Peter (Potyr) Stolypin Timeline of the development of the Social Democratic Party Georgi Plekanhov founded the party Separation between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks hardened and formalised April 1905
Dispute between Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov April 1906 Attempted to reunify Held another meeting together, now Mensheviks the minority but still mostly working independently. Final attempt at unifying the party Julius Martov-
Menshiveks first leader May 1907 Split between Lenin and Bogdanov 1908-1909 1910 1912 Bolsheviks and Mensheviks formed separate parties Alexander Bogdanov Georgi Plekhanov 1898 1903 Thanks for watching! :)