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Geologic & Biologic Evolution of a Penguin

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Elizabeth S.

on 18 April 2013

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Transcript of Geologic & Biologic Evolution of a Penguin

By: Sumanjali Dasari and Elizabeth Shin Geologic and Biologic Evolution of a Penguin Habitat of Penguins Common Name-Penguin
Class: Aves- This includes all birds. They have an outer covering of feathers, are warm-blooded, have front limbs modified into wings, and lay eggs.
Order: Spenisciformes- Includes all living and extinct penguins.
Family: Speniscidae- Includes all living and extinct penguins.
There are 18 species/genuses of penguins.
For example, some of these species are: emperor, king, gentoo, royal, etc. Placement on the Geologic Time Scale Penguins were first found in the Phanerozoic Eon, the Cenozoic Era, the Paleogene/Tertiary Period, and the Paleocene Epoch. Lives almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere.
Mostly found in Antarctica and on every southern continent.
Needs to live close to a body of water and spends 75% of their time in it.
Finds food in water and breeds on land.
Some live on thick sheets of ice while others are on small islands. Year of the Penguins First Appearance on Earth (Modern Day Species) The first documentation of penguin sightings is credited to the members of the Portuguese voyage of Vasco de Gama to India in 1947. Trophic Level/ Predator or Prey They are on the fifth trophic level.
When in water, penguins are prey to leopard seals, fur seals, sea lions, sharks, and killer whales.
When on land, they are prey to foxes and snakes.
They are also predator to fish, krill, and squid. Other Characteristics Consumer
Carnivore
Social Birds- feeds and nests in groups.
Penguins closer to the equator eat more fish and penguins closer to Antarctica eat more squid and krill. Events During The Paleogene Period 60 million years ago, the first ancestor of the penguins existed.
During this period: the first major worldwide division of rocks occurred, the complete absence of dinosaurs, mammals created, primates become more abundant, and life in oceans become more diverse. Commonalities Between Ancestral Organisms Penguins evolved from flying birds 65 million years ago during the Cretaceous period.
Penguins share molecular and morphological characteristics with birds in the Order Procellariiformes, the Order Gaviiformes , and frigate birds.
Has 70 similar characteristics between birds.
Early ancestors were also flightless and called Waimanu, not as well equipped to swim.
Derived from a bird that could fly.
Needed to adapt to the waters in order to survive, so wings changed to flippers.
Layers of fat developed due to evolution and the need to survive cold weather.
As their bodies needed the flippers to be able to swim well, the joints formed differently and fused the wrist to the elbow.
This evolution helped the penguins to not become extinct. Picture of a Waimanu Penguin (Earliest Ancestor) Fossils/Bones of Waimanu Penguin This Picture Gives A Quick Overview On Penguin Evolution Anatomies of Different Types of Penguins Picture of the Present Day Penguin Works Cited "PENGUINS - Scientific Classification." PENGUINS - Scientific Classification. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013.
http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/penguin/scientific-classification.htm

"Penguin Habitat." Penguin Habitat. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013.
http://www.penguins-world.com/penguin-habitat.html

"Basic Facts About Penguins." Penguins. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013.
http://www.defenders.org/penguins/basic-facts

"Welcome." Penguin Palooza. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2013.
http://www.hudson.edu/custom_users/mmtech/17930/17930/Welcome.html

"Penguin Evolution." Penguin Evolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2013.
http://www.penguins-world.com/penguin-evolution.html

"Paleocene Epoch." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2013.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/439414/Paleocene-Epoch
"Fun Penguin Facts for Kids - Emperor, King, Chinstrap Penguins & More!" Fun Penguin Facts for Kids - Emperor, King, Chinstrap Penguins & More! N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.
http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/animals/penguin.html.
"Cool Penguin Facts and FAQ's." Cool Penguin Facts and FAQ's. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.
http://www.tnaqua.org/OurAnimals/Birds/PenguinFactsandFAQ.aspx.
"Funny Penguin Video." YouTube. YouTube, 26 July 2008. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.
"PENGUINS, the Story of the Birds That Wanted to Be Fish [PROMO ENG]." YouTube. YouTube, 06 June 2011. Web. 17 Apr. 2013. Identification Before We Mention Penguin Evolution, We Should First Discuss Who Was The Root of all This Charles Darwin was curious about the diversity of living things
He soon developed the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
It explained why species such as the penguin changed over time
He developed this theory through many explorations such as the Voyage of the Beagle
On the voyage, he studied animals on different islands
Overall, Darwin is a significant and influential person in science, especially when it comes to evolution Now, on to the evolution of penguins! Another Penguin Fossil Quick Video on Penguins Here Are Some Quick Fun Facts About Penguins •Galapagos Penguins are the only species that can go north of the equator.
•They can drink sea water.
•The Penguin's black and white plumage serves as camouflage while swimming. black (hard to see from above) white(looks like sun reflecting off surface of water when seen from below)
•Most penguins are chubby because their fat layer insulates heat and provides energy for them when food is scarce.
•On land, they waddle, hop, and slide.
•In water, they swim near a surface, "fly" underwater, and sometimes jump out of the water like dolphins. Finally, Lets End With A Funny Penguin Video
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