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Chapter 18: America Claims an Empire
Transcript of Chapter 18: America Claims an Empire
Spanish American War
Acquiring New Lands
America as a World Power
Americans always wanted to expand the size of their nation. Throughout the 19th century they extended their control throughout the pacific. By the 18th century american leaders were convinced that the US should join imperialists powers of Europe.
The policy in which stronger nations extend their political, economic, or military control over weaker territories.
European nations had been establishing colonies for centuries.
Imperialists competed for territory in Asia, especially China.
Most Americans warmed up to the idea of expansion overseas.
Desire For Military Strength
Seeing that other nations were establishing a global military presence, American leaders advised that the US build up its own military strength.
Alfred T. Mahan
Leader of the U.S. Navy. He urged government official to build up American naval power in order to compete with other powerful nations. As a result, the U.S. built nine steel-hulled cruisers between 1883 and 1890.
Thirst for New Markets
In the late 19th century, advances in technology enabled American farm and factories to produce far more than American citizens could consume.
U.S. needed raw materials for its factories and new markets
Imperialists viewed foreign trade as the solution to American over-production and the related problems of unemployment and economic depression
The U.S. Acquires Alaska
William Seward was an early supporter of American expansion. He was Secretary of State under presidents Lincoln and Johnson. In 1867 he arranged for the U.S. to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million. In 1959, Alaska became a state . For 2 cents an acre, the U.S had acquired a land rich in timber, minerals, and, as it turned out, oil.
The U.S. Takes Hawaii
In 1867 the U.S. took over Midway Islands.
The Hawaiian Islands had been economically important to the U.S. for nearly a century.
Americans stopped there on their way way to China and East India.
In the 1820's, Yankee missionaries founded christian schools and churches on the island
Cry For Annexation
In the mid-19th century, American-owned sugar plantations accounted for about three-quarters of the islands' wealth. By 1900, foreigners and immigrant laborers outnumbered native Hawaiians about 3:1
White planters profited form close ties with the U.S. In 1875. the U.S. agreed to import Hawaiian sugar duty-free. over the next 15 yrs, Hawaiian sugar production increased 9 times. The McKinley Tariff of 1890 provoked a crisis by eliminating the duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar. As a result, Hawaiian sugar growers faced competition in the American market.
The United State's best port. In 1887, the U.S. military pressured Hawaii to allow them to build a naval base. The base became a refueling station for American ships.
End of a Monarchy
In 1887, Hawaii's King Kalakaua had been strong-armed by white business leaders. they forced him to amend Hawaii's constitution, effectively limiting voting rights to only wealthy land-owners. When Kalakaus died in 1891, his sister Queen Liliuokalani came to power with a "Hawaii for Hawaiians" agenda.
Sanford B. Dole
President Cleveland directed that the queen be restored to her throne. When Dole refused to surrender power, Cleveland formally recognized the the Republic of Hawaii. But he refused to consider annexation unless a majority of Hawaiians favored it.
Cubans Rebel Against Spain
By the end of the 19th century, Spain had lost most of it's colonies.
The U.S. had long held an interest in Cuba. In 1854, diplomats recommended President Franklin Pierce that the U.S. buy cuba from Spain. It didn't happen.
2nd War for Independence
Anti-Spanish sentiment in Cuba soon erupted into a second war for independence. Jose Marti, a Cuban poet and journalist, launched a revolution in 1895. He organized Cuban resistance against Spain, using an active guerrilla campaign and deliberately destroying property, especially American sugar mills and plantations.
Marti counted on provoking U.S. intervention to help the rebels achieve
, a free Cuba.
War Fever Escalates
In 1896, Spain responded to the Cuban revolt by sending General Valeriano Weyler to Cuba to restore order. He tried to crush the rebellion by hearding the entire rural population of central and western Cuba into barbed-wire concentration camps. There, civilians could not give aid to rebels. About 300,000 Cubans filled these camps. Thousands died from hunger and disease.
The use of sensationalized and exaggerated reporting by newspapers or magazines to attract readers
Weyler's actions fueled a bunch of false reports.
The U.S.S. Maine Explodes
American resentment toward Spain turned into an outrage. Early in 1898, President McKinley had ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba to bring home American citizens in danger from fighting and to protect American property. February 15, 1898, the ship blew up in the harbor of Havana. Over 260 men died.
A voluntary cavalry under the command of Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt.
The most famous land battle in Cuba took place near Santiago on July 1. The fisrt part of the battle featured a dramatic uphill charge by the Rough Riders and two African-American regiments. Their victory cleared the way for an infantry attack on the stratigically important San Jaun Hill.
Treaty of Paris
The U.S. and Spain signed an armistice, a cease-fire agreement, on August 12, ending what Secretary of State John Hay called "a splendid little war." The actual fight only lasted 15 weeks.
On December 10, 1898, the U.S. and Spain met in Paris to agree on a treaty. Spain freed Cuba and turned over the islands of Guam to the U.S.
Ruling Puerto Rico
Some Puerto Ricans still wanted statehood, while others hoped for some measure of local self-government as an American territory. The U.S. gave Puerto Ricans no promises regarding independence after the spanish war.
Return to Civil Government
Puerto Rico was stratigically important to the U.S., both for maintaining a U.S. presence in the Caribbean and for protecting a future canal that American leaders wanted to build across the Isthmus of Panama. In 1900, congress passed the Foraker Act, which ended military rule and set up a civil government. This act gave the President of the U.S. the power to appoint Puerto Rico's governor and members of the upper house of it's legislature. Puerto Rican's could elect only the members of the legislature's lower house.
Cuba and the U.S.
When the U.S declared war against Spain in 1898, it recognized Cuba's independence from Spain. It also passed the Teller Amendment, which stated that the U.S. had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba. The Treaty of Paris, which ended the war, further guarenteed Cuba the independence that its nationalist leaders had been demanding for years.
In 1900 the newly formed Cuban government wrote a constitution for an independent
Cuba. However, it did not specify the relationship between Cuba and the U.S. In 1901, the U.S. insisted that Cuba add to its constitution, stating that:
Cuba could not make treaties that might limit its independence or permit a foreign power to control any part of its territory
the U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Cuba
Cuba was not to go into debt that its government could not repay
the U.S. could buy or lease land on the island for naval stations and refueling stations
Filipinos acted with an outrage to the Treaty of Paris. This called for American annexation to the Philippines. The rebel leader, Emilio Anguinaldo, believed that the U.S. had promised independence. When he and his followers learned the terms of the treaty, they vowed to fight for freedom.
In February 1899, the Filipinos rose in revolt. The U.S. forced Filipinos to live in designated zones, where poor sanitation, starvation, and disease killed thousands. This was the very same practice that Americans had condemned Spain for using in Cuba.
It took Americans nearly three years to put down the rebellion. About 20,000 Filipino rebels died fighting for independence. The war claimed 4,000 American lives and cost $400 million.
Foreign Influence in China
U.S. imperialists saw the Philippines as a gateway to the rest of Asia, particularly to China. China was seen as a vast potential market for American products. It also presented American investors with new opportunities for large-scale railroad construction.
Weakened by the war and foreign intervention, China had become know as the "sick man of Asia." France, Germany, Britain, Japan, and Russia had established prosperous settlements along the coast of China. They had also carved out spheres of influence, areas where each nation claimed special rights and economic privileges.
The Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains
In 1900, William McKinley was elected a 2nd term against William Bryan. McKinley's reelection confirmed that a majority of Americans favored his policies. Under McKinley, the U.S. had gained an empire.
Teddy Roosevelt and the World
The assassination of William McKinley in 1901 thrust vice president Theodore Roosevelt into the role of the world leader. Roosevelt was unwilling to allow the imperial powers of Europe to control the world's political and economic destiny. In 1905 Roosevelt mediated a settlement in a war between Russia and Japan.
Many Americans felt that the U.S. needed a canal cutting across Central America. A canal would greatly reduce travel time for commercial and military ships by providing a shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In the late 1800's, a French company tried to build a canal in Panama. After 10 years, the company gave up. In 1903, the president and congress decided to use the Panama route and agreed to buy the French company's route for $40 million.
The Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt reminded European powers of the Monroe Doctrine, which had been issued in 1823 by President James Monroe. The Monroe Doctrine demanded that European countries stay out of the affairs of Latin American nations. In December 1904 message to congress, Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary to American might "forced the U.S. ... to the exercise of an international police power." In effect, the Corollary said that the U.S would now use force to protect its economic interest in Latin America.
The U.S. policy of using the nation's economic power to exert influence over other countries.
Woodrow Wilson's Missionary Diplomacy
In 1913, President Woodrow Wilson gave the Monroe Doctrine a moral tone.
According to Wilson's "missionary diplomacy," the U.S. had a moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to the U.S. interests.
Mexico had been ruled for more than three decades by a military dictator, Porfirio Diaz. A friend of the U.S., Diaz had long encouraged foreign investments in his country. As a result, foreigners owned a large share of mexican oil wells, mines, railroads, and ranches. While foreign investors and some mexican landowners and politicians had grown rich, the common people of the country were desperately poor.
In 1911, Mexican peasants and workers led by Francisco Mandero overthrew Diaz. Mandero promised democratic reforms, but he proved unable to satisfy the conflicting demands of landowners, peasants, factory workers, and the urban middle class. After 2 years, General Huerta took over the government. Within days, Mandero was murdered.