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Road to 9/11: George W. Bush
Transcript of Road to 9/11: George W. Bush
February 26, 1993 In Tora Bora, Mohammed and bin Laden met, and Mohammed told his friend about his plan to bomb 12 American jumbo jets over the Pacific (Wright 235). The two conspired different people to kill and different ways to do so. This sparked the thoughts in bin Laden for future attacks against America, including "one that would require training pilots to crash airplanes into buildings" (Wright 236). The plans for 9/11 had officially been thought of. Bin Laden's Meeting with Khaled Sheikh Mohammed
Late 1996 Four plane hijackers got their US visa to attend flight schools. Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khaled al-Mindhar were from Saudi Arabia, so they easily obtained visas. They were ordered to go to Germany and apply to schools within America. At these schools, they not only learned how to fly a plane, but how to hijack and take control. They were the ones who flew into the Twin Towers and Pentagon. Plane Hijackers Get U.S. Visa
Late 1999 When the planes hit the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, George W. Bush was reading a children's story to a second-grade class. Bush responded to the attack "with a sober and stirring address to Congress nine days later. His solemn demeanor and the gravity of the situtation helped to dissipate the cloud of illegitimacy that had shadowed his presidency" (Kennedy 1002). The Battle of Tora Bora and Invasion of Iraq followed this, as it was America's retaliation for being attacked. Bombing of the World Trade Center
September 11, 2001 Birth of George W. Bush
July 6, 1946 PERSONAL Lack of Focus on Terrorism
2001 When George W. Bush was inaugurated president, terrorism became a low priority, a huge mistake in retrospect. Dick Clarke, a key figure in the terrorist department and one who was fighting to find Osama bin Laden, met with Condoleezza Rice, the national security adviser for the Bush Administration, and asked to be reassigned. Clarke briefed her in January about the threat bin Laden posed, yet Rice ignored him and downgraded his position (Wright 334-335). CIA and FBI Meeting
June 11, 2001 As part of the investigation for the bombing of the USS Cole, the CIA and FBI met to discuss and brief each other on their progress on investigation. The meeting quickly took a wrong turn when the CIA showed the high-quality photographs they had discovered. The FBI asked who was in the pictures, but the CIA refused to say. The inability of the FBI and CIA being able to communicate is part of the reason America was attacked. America had all the pieces to the puzzle, yet they were not able to put them together (Wright 340-342). This, and Bush's lack of focus on terrorism, prevented America from learning of the planned terrorism. Inauguration
January 20, 2001 Bush was inaugurated January 20, 2001 as the 43rd president. Although there is debate as to whether he justly won, his election forever changed history. The terrorist attack on 9/11 happened under his presidency, and many wonder if there is more he could have done to prevent the horrific event (Bush). This event marks the beginning of his eight year ruling of the executive branch. NATIONAL NATIONAL NATIONAL USS Cole Bombing
October 12, 2000 As the USS Cole was preparing to depart, a fishing boat holding a group of terrorists bombed the ship, killing 17, and leaving 39 wounded. Osama bin Laden saw the fishing boat as a representative of Mohammed, and the Cole as the capital of the West. This event showed the vulnerability of Americans to terrorist attacks. It was the first time bin Laden attacked Americans on American soil, and he succeeded, further planting the seed for 9/11 (Wright 319-321). GLOBAL GLOBAL Death of Sayyid Qutb
August 29, 1966 The death of Sayyid Qutb created the foundation for al-Qaeda, the terrorist group which bombed the Twin Towers during Bush's presidency. Qutb was a radical Islamist who believed there was a choice of either pure, primitive Islam or the doom of mankind (Wright 30). After Qutb was murdered and marked as a martyr, his followers continued his radical belief. Osama bin Laden took Qutb's orders and started al-Qaeda. Creation of al-Qaeda
August 11, 1988 GLOBAL Sheikh Abdullah Azzam called a meeting to discuss the future of jihad, one of the attending members being bin Laden. The organization of al-Qaeda had been forming months before, but it was officially declared at this meeting. The attendees agreed it would be a separate group for Arabs to keep the jihad alive (Wright 131-133). This meeting and creation of al-Qaeda greatly impacted Bush, America, and the world. U.S. Troop Presence in Middle East
September 1990 GLOBAL When Iraq invaded Kuwait, Saudi Arabia called upon America for protection. This infuriated bin Laden, as he believed Americans were evil and horrible. Their presence in the Middle East further pushed bin Laden's anger, turning it to hatred. Thus, bin Laden began forming his idea and plan to attack the country, and fight America with faith (Wright 155-157). Abu Hajer's Two Fatwas
December 1992 GLOBAL Abu Hajer was one of bin Laden's closest friends, and turned the al-Qaeda "from being the anti-communist Islamic army that bin Laden had originally envisioned into a terrorist organization bent on attacking the United States" (Wright 171). His two fatwas changed al-Qaeda. The first authorized the attacks on American troops, and the second authorized the murder of innocent civilians. These fatwas turned al-Qaeda into a terrorist organization aimed on bringing down America. NATIONAL Ali Abdelsoud Mohammed--Confession to CIA
May 1993 NATIONAL National Guard Bombing
November 13, 1995 GLOBAL GLOBAL Bin Laden Declares War on America
August 23, 1996 International Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders Publication
February 23, 1998 GLOBAL Works Cited NATIONAL Ali Abdelsoud Mohammed, Zawahiri's guide in the United States, spoke to John Zent, and FBI agent. He told Zent everything he knew, mentioning bin Laden and al-Qaeda and their plans to attack the country. No one listened to him, which was a big mistake (Wright 181-182). If the FBI listened to Mohammed and took his words seriously, they could have prevented 9/11 before Bush was even elected as president. PERSONAL George H. W. Bush Inaugurated
January 20, 1989 In 1989, George H. W. Bush was inaugurated as president (President George H W Bush). This affected George W. Bush personally, as he was now able to see an inside view of what it takes to be president, and possibly inspired him to run for office just 11 years later. The National Guard bombing killed seven people, five of which were Americans. It was bin Laden's first terrorist blow. Bin Laden never publicly admitted authorizing the attack, but he called the men heroes and was proud the number of U.S. troops in the Kingdom was reduced. This was bin Laden's first attack against Americans, which only spurred attacks further in the future (Wright 211-212). Bin Laden declared war against America, claiming Americans were not aware of the injustice, repression and aggression that had befallen Muslims. America ignored the threat, when they should have listened to it. This declaration of war only spurred his thinking and desire to attack America, yet the country did nothing, and let bin Laden conspire (Wright 234). GLOBAL Al-Quds al-Arabi in London published a fatwa by this group. It was signed by bin Laden, Zawahiri, Taha, Rahman, and others. The fatwa showed a global Islamic jihad against America, with three grievances against the Americans; the presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia, the United States' intention to destroy Iraq, and the American goal of propping up Israel (Wright 259-260). This publication showed the anger of many key figures in 9/11 and foreshadows future violence. PERSONAL Governor of Texas
January 17, 1995 George W. Bush ran for the position of governor of Texas, beating Ann Richards. He was inspired by his father's recent victory, and it was his first role in politics, a predecessor to his campaign in 2000 for president (George). PERSONAL Nomination to run for President
1999 After holding office as governor of Texas, George W. Bush decided to run for President. He won the nomination, becoming the Republican candidate for the 2000 election against Al Gore. GLOBAL Operation Infinite Reach
August 1998 After being attacked in two American embassies, America responded by sending thirteen Tomahawk cruise missiles into Khartoum, destroying a pharmaceutical plant. Sixty-six missiles were also sent to Khost, Afghanistan. The missiles did nothing good for America. People were mad the country attacked innocent civilians, and public opinion turned negative. Bin Laden was mad that America tried to kill him (Wright 282-283). NATIONAL CIA Refuses to Give up Laptop
July 1998 The CIA kidnapped Mabruk, cloning his laptop computer. It was nicknamed "the Rosetta Stone of al-Qaeda" (Wright 268-269). The CIA refused to turn it over to the FBI, which prevented the United States from learning of and preventing 9/11. Their unwillingness to share and inability to talk caused the terrorist attacks (Wright 268-269). NATIONAL Conviction of Embassy Bombers
May 29, 2001 In a federal courtroom in Manhattan, a "just convicted four men in the bombings of the American embassies in East Africa" (Wright 339). It was one of the only victories that America could point to. This success was under Bush's presidency. PERSONAL Inspiration to run for Office
1989-1994 In 1989, Bush joined a group of investors in purchasing the Texas Rangers. Bush quickly became the leader. Then, in 1992, after his father lost, Bush was inspired to run for governor of Texas as a Republican. Because of his leadership and investment with the Texas Rangers, he was very popular in the 1994 campaign (George). These events inspired him to run for president later on, and are the reason he was president on September 11. NATIONAL 2000 Election
November 2000 The 2000 Election between George W. Bush and Al Gore was very controversial. After the Bush Administration went to Court, George W. Bush won, although Al Gore had more popular vote. Bush won only because the Courts declared him a winner, which cast a dark shadow over his presidency. Many people doubted him and did not respect him, which made 9/11 even harder (Kennedy 998-999). GLOBAL Bush, George W. "George W. Bush: Inaugural Address." George W. Bush: Inaugural Address. N.p., 20 Jan. 2001. Web. 19 May 2013. <http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=25853>."George W. Bush Biography."
Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 19 May 2013. <http://www.biography.com/people/george-w-bush-9232768>.Kennedy, David M. The
American Pageant. 13th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. Print."President George
H.W. Bush." George H.W. Bush, 1989. N.p., 20 Jan. 1989. Web. 19 May 2013. <http://www.inaugural.senate.gov/swearing-in/event/george-h-w-bush-1989>.
Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Knopf, 2006. Print.