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Effectiveness of Quarantine in Australia, BN

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Boaz Ng

on 20 June 2013

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Transcript of Effectiveness of Quarantine in Australia, BN

Myrtle Rust
Uredo rangelii
Cause
- Fungal pathogen that affects plants of the family Myrtaceae

Symptoms
- Damages new growth, especially shoots, developing flowers and fruits.

- Affected plants are identified by brown lesions or yellow spores

- Causes damage and deformation, especially in young plants
Problems
- The family Myrtaceae is a major plant group found in Australia.
- Myrtle rust affects a wide range of Myrtaceae genuses, with the potential to devastate natural ecosystems
- Native species haven't developed resistance to the fungus
- Some species, both animal and plant, and habitat types may be at risk from extinction
H5N1 Avian Influenza
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
Cause
- Caused by Influenza A subtype H5N1

Symptoms
Problems
H5N1 has a high mutation rate, and can mutate to infect a variety of hosts with different degrees of damage
Quarantine
Identification
Treatment
Management
Advantage
Disadvantage
Bibliography
Background: Phoebus87 at en.wikipedia.org (CC)
Quarantine
Identification
Treatment
Management
Advantage
Disadvantage
Final Evaluation
- Forestries, agriculture and industry (such as timber and nurseries) utilize Myrtaceae genuses such as Eucalyptus sp.
- May reduce productivity and yield, with economic repercussions
- Forest regeneration efforts can be inhibited

(Dr Louise Morin, CSIRO
Patricia Gardner toowoombaplants2008.blogspot.com.au
Biosecurity Queensland 2011
Images Attributed as they appear
Dr Louise Morin CSIRO
- Myrtaceae genuses in cultivation are at risk
- Myrtle rust affected plants are identified by its symptoms: Brown lesions, yellow spores and deformation in new growth and fruits
- Nursery stock to be imported must be inspected 14 days prior to import and be free of symptoms
- Some plants are to be detained at quarantine and inspected over an extended period
- Spores (e.g. on clothing) are often undetectable

Spread of Myrtle Rust
adapted from http://www.thenavigationcentre.com.au/
- Originates from Brazil and Uruguay in South America
- Has spread to Mexico, Florida, Hawaii and Australia
- Spores are easily transportable
- Introduced to Australia through international travel and trade

- Spores may have been transferred on clothing or in plant stock

- Once in the country, spores are spread through wind and pollinating insects
- Requires moderate to tropical temperatures
- Currently found only in coastal Queensland and New South Wales
Climate suitable areas in Australia
Darren Kriticos, CSIRO, via http://www.ecosmagazine.com/?paper=EC11019
- Nursery stock from affected areas must be treated with an APVMA approved fungicide (such as chlorothalonil) twice at 14 day intervals prior to despatch
- Plants already affected can be treated with an APVMA approved fungicide
- Plants that are an advanced stage of infection are isolated and destroyed
- Plants that are found to be infected at quarantine inspection are destroyed
- Quarantine has failed to exclude Myrtle rust from Australia, and aims to limit its spread


- States have limited the importation of Myrtaceae products from affected regions. This includes:
- Cuttings, flowers, fruits, seeds, mulch
- The trade of pollinators (such as honey bees) is restricted
- Virus endemic to South East Asia
- Has spread to Europe and Africa
- Naturally spread by migratory birds internationally
- Spread facilitated by global poultry trade

public domain
Kin Cheung/Associated Press) via http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/story/2011/12/23/bird-flu-hong-kong.html
- Found naturally in wild bird populations in SE Asia
- Transferred to poultry in cultivation
- Virus is mutates frequently and develops into different strains quickly

- Some forms have mutated to infect other animal hosts.
- Some strains can be transmitted from poultry to humans

- Different strains have different levels of danger

- Global concern occurs when strains develop that
- Are highly contagious and 'highly pathogenic'
- Can infect humans and other animals
- Can be spread from human to human
In Birds
Different forms have different symptoms
In the lowly pathogenic form:
- Respiratory difficulties
- Reduced egg production
- Ruffled feathers
- Swollen eyes, comb and wattle
- Dehydration and diarrhea
- Loss of appetite

In the highly pathogenic form:
- Affected birds may die without warning, but above symptoms may occur


via http://www.thepoultrysite.com/articles/275/
via http://beforeitsnews.com/mass-animal-death/2013/01/the-h5n1-virus-in-sukabumi-regency-800-dead-ducks-tail-suddenly-west-java-2431248.html
In Humans
via http://www.harrogate.gov.uk/pp/Pages/FoodPoisoningandFoodRelatedIllnesses.aspx?lgnl=100002,200049
- Low danger forms have symptoms that resemble typical influenza
- Fever
-Sore throat
-Cough
-Headache
-Muscle ache

- Highly Dangerous forms have more severe symptoms including
- Pneumonia
- Acute respiratory distress
- Inflammation of brain and heart
via http://urbantimes.co/magazine/2010/12/artificial-intelligents/h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-particles-tem/
To Poultry
To Humans
PBS via http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/h5n1-killer-flu/essay-the-next-pandemic/2458/
via http://beforeitsnews.com/mass-animal-death/2013/01/the-h5n1-virus-in-sukabumi-regency-800-dead-ducks-tail-suddenly-west-java-2431248.html
- Highly contagious forms may spread quickly in densly populated farms
- Highly pathogenic forms can kill an entire group of birds
- Has potential to devastate the poultry industry
- Restricts global poultry trade
- Infected birds must be killed to limit spread
- $10 billion USD has been spent to contain the virus
- 200 mllion birds have been killed to contain the virus
- The virus can jump from birds to humans
- Poses danger to people who work with poultry

- The virus mutates quickly, so a lowly pathogenic strain may develop into a dangerous one
- If the strain is highly pathogenic, it may kill many people quickly
- A pandemic form may develop in the future that can jump from human to human
In Humans
- Lowly pathogenic H5N1 is difficult to identify due to its similarity to the normal flu
- All passengers entering Australia who display symptoms of an infectious disease must be reported to DAAF Biosecurity under the Quarantine Act 1908.
- Biosecurity officers assesses the case and determines threat level
- If the person comes from an area with reported avian influenza, the person may be isolated and tested, or refused entry
- Swabs are taken from the nose and throat
In Animals & Products
- Before importation, all poultry and poultry products must be tested for H5N1
- Laboratory testing of eggs, blood and other bird products are tested for the virus
- Live birds can be identified if they display symptoms
- In humans, there is no highly effective treatment
- The antiviral drug oseltamivir (tamiflu) has been shown to reduce the severity of the illness

- Animals are not usually treated, and are culled to prevent further transmission
- A long term vaccination is unavailable as the virus frequently mutates

- Quarantine instead aims at excluding Avian influenza from Australia
- Illegally imported poultry and products are detained by customs or destroyed
Since the first cases in 2003, Quarantine has restricted the entry of bird products into Australia
- Poultry meats and products are banned from entry. They are seized and destroyed at customs

Within Australia, strict guidelines are in place to protect the poultry and egg industry
- Poultry is to be kept away from wild birds
People with bird flu are refused entry into Australia, or are quarantined until they are no longer sick
Through its strict quarantine procedures and restrictions, Quarantine has prevented H5N1 Avian Influenza from reaching Australia. Additionally, no human cases have been recorded in Australia.

- Safeguards Australian egg and poultry industry
- Eradication and confinement costs of affected may exceed millions of dollars, damaging the economy.
- For example, in 2003, the Netherlands spent approximately $252 million AUD to eradicate the virus.
Quarantine is only effective for human activities. Natural phenomena such as bird migrations cannot be prevented.

- Some migratory bird species visit areas affected with H5N1
- These birds have the potential to introduce the virus to Australia and infect native populations

The strict quarantine measures in place have slowed the spread of the fungus across regions in Australia.


Quarantine is only effective against human movements. It can not prevent the spread of Myrtle rust through natural means.

- Spores are easily transmitted by the wind
- Pollinating insects can transfer spores across areas
- Quarantine recommended to all travelers that have visited affected areas wash their clothing and equipment thoroughly

- Mainly affects areas with poor sanitation practises and developing countries.
- People who handle poultry are more likely to be infected (farmers, market vendors)
- Virus is transmitted from the bird to a human via close contact with an infected bird
- Transmissible through contact with contamninated surfaces and materials
The effectiveness of quarantine depends on the nature of each specific threat. Quarantine has been shown to be successful in excluding diseases that are easily identified, not easily transmitted and easily contained. This can be achieved through methods such as banning the importation of products that may transmit the threat. However, quarantine is only moderately effective at keeping out threats are usually highly contagious, hard to detect and depend largely on individuals being proactive. Furthermore, quarantine is ineffective in preventing threats that are introduced through natural means (such as wind or migratory birds), as quarantine relies on monitoring and controlling human travel and activities. The level of effectiveness for quarantine is therefore different depending on factors such as identification, transmissibility, occurence frequency, and mode of transmission.
- All nursery stock entering Australia must have a Plant Health certificate to ensure that they are free of the fungus
- Plants may be isolated for a period of time to ensure that they are not infected
MYRTLE RUST
ABC. 2013. Fact Sheet: Disease Alert: Myrtle Rust http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s3177618.htm (accessed 13/6/13)
Department of Agriculture and Food. 2013. Pest Alert: Myrtle Rust http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/PC_94039.html (accessed 13/6/13)
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestries. 2013. Eucalyptus/Guava rust http://www.daff.gov.au/aqis/quarantine/pests-diseases/plants/eucalyptus-guava-rust (accessed 13/6/13)
Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment. 2013. Myrtle Rust http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/MCAS-8DV22F?open (accessed 13/6/13)
Quarantine Domestic. 2013. Myrtle Rust http://www.quarantinedomestic.gov.au/myrtle-rust.html (accessed 13/6/13)
Victoria Department of Protection and Primary Industries. 2013. Treatment of Myrtle Rust in the Home Garden http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/forestry/pests-diseases-weeds/diseases/myrtle-rust/treatment-of-myrtle-rust-in-the-home-garden (accessed 13/6/13)

H5N1
Better Health Channel. 2013. Bird flu (avian influenza) http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Bird_flu (accessed 22/6/13)
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 2013. Avien Influenza or Bird Flu http://www.daff.gov.au/animal-plant-health/pests-diseases-weeds/animal/avian-influenza (accessed 22/6/13)
Department of Health and Ageing. 2013. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-avian_influenza-index.htm (accessed 22/6/13)
Health Promotion Board. 2012. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza/H5N1) http://www.hpb.gov.sg/HOPPortal/dandc-article/450 (accessed 22/6/13)
Oracle. 2006. Avian Flu (Bird Flu) http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01202/symptoms.htm (accessed 22/6/13)
World Health Organization. 2013. FAQs: H5N1 influenza http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/avian_influenza/h5n1_research/faqs/en/ (accessed 22/6/13)

Morning Bulletin http://www.themorningbulletin.com.au/news/council-sprays-gardens-myrtle-rust/1234160/
Australian Government http://www.anbg.gov.au/gardens/living/horticulture/pest.html
- Allows time for preventative research
- Allows time for the implementation of preventative plans
- Gives more time for industries to adapt to the inevitable risk (e.g. developing resistant strains)

Department of Primary Industries via http://www.couriermail.com.au/ipad/alarm-at-disease-threat-to-our-parks/story-fn6ck51p-1226032314356
via http://www.news-mail.com.au/news/myrtle-rust-on-the-move/1299208/
sanofi via http://kottke.org/09/11/how-the-h1n1-vaccine-is-made
public domain
Washington Beacon via http://libertariancrier.com/chinese-col-blames-america-for-creating-bird-flu/
D Trounson © Australian Museum
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