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Alejandra Arellano

on 4 June 2013

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PAUL RICOEUR: RICOUR'S CONCLUSION YOU ARE WHAT YOU DO -Widely recognized Philosopher born on February 27th, 1913 in Valence ,France.

-He seeks to deal with the essential structure of man's being-in-the-world.

-Aiming to understand the capabilities and vulnerabilities that human beings display in the activities that make up their lives. WHAT? CIRCUMSTANCES DETERMINISM CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF HUMAN ACTION -Actions give us our identity.
-They dictate who we are and who we become.
-Freedom is the human potential, the capacity, and power to act. WHO? WHY? HOW? the agent-assuming we all have free choice, each of us is responsible for what we do and intend to do. by intending to do certain things you shape yourself. ex. going to university next year, or stealing a car The action-Ethics is also about the action itself- what the agent does.-The agent can make things happen through thought, word and deed.

ex. shoplifting, gossiping or showing appreciation all make you the person you are.

Ethics focuses on intentional actions- these are moral actions because they are freely and knowingly chosen The motive- We all have reasons or motives for what we intend to do (our actions).

-Whenever you give a motive, you justify your action, you appeal to a value that makes the action right (if only in your eyes)-You practice ethics when you begin to reflect on the values that guides your decisions and intentions (you decide whether it is right or wrong) With what means- Whichever way you choose to deal with an action, it says something about you.

Is harm done so that good could be accomplished? Was something or someone hurt either directly or indirectly due to the action? Were the means (method) used to achieve the end (goal) controversial or underhanded? But...What if we do not have freedom? The situation or events surrounding the action always affects the decisions and choices made as well as the responsibility involved.
-Circumstances may reduce or increase your responsibility for an action.

Ex. if you are threatened with violence, or in extreme hunger, or under extreme pressure, these all affect the level of your intention and motive
-Every circumstance either aggravates (makes worse) or mitigates (make less severe) a situation depending on the circumstances The Morality of Human Acts depend on:
-the object chosen
-the intention or end
-the circumstances -Says that free will is an illusion. -Therefore, there is no such thing as a moral agent, since no one can freely choose their actions. NATURALISM -States that the material universe is made up of physical, biological, psychological, social and environmental processes. -Everything, including humanity is connected by cause and effect. - we become "genetically pre-programed mechanisms" -This becomes a problem -> difficult to ethically judge someone's actions. Should this man be charged guilty? -Naturalism denies the possibility of ethics and morality.
-Any naturalist would argue that an individual could not be held responsible for his/her actions since they have no control over the natural physical processes that arise from our genetic makeup. -Kant, on the other hand, would say that "the end does not justify the means".
Although it was not the man's intention to kill his wife, he still should be held responsible, because a life was lost. -St. Augustine- wrote extensively about the connection between free will and grace.
-free will and original sin
-we choose to sin, be good Using the conceptual framework of action allow us to understand action indirectly. The meaning of an actions shifts depending on the answers to the questions / problems. And action is good only when it fulfills certain conditions. An action is not good or itself. The morality of human acts depends on: -the object chosen-the intention or end-the circumstances Though the accent is always on the possibility of understanding the self as an agent responsible for its actions, Ricoeur consistently rejects any claim that the self is immediately transparent to itself or fully master of itself. Self-knowledge only comes through our relation to the world and our life with and among others in that world. SOURCES Dauenhauer, Bernard and Pellauer, David, "Paul Ricoeur", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/ricoeur/>. imms, Karl. "Chapter 6: ETHICS." Routledge Critical Thinkers. 101-109. n.p.: Taylor & Francis Ltd / Books, 2002. Literary Reference Center. Web. 30 May 2013. Valdés, Mario J. "Literature And The Philosophy Of Paul Ricœœur." Comparative Critical Studies 7.2/3 (2010): 203-210. Literary Reference Center. Web. 30 May 2013. Vicens, Leigh. "Divine Determinism, Human Freedom, And The Consequence Argument." International Journal For Philosophy Of Religion 71.2 (2012): 145. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 30 May 2013. Morris, Steven. "Devoted Husband Who Strangled Wife in His Sleep Walks Free from Court." Theguardian. Theguardian, 20 Nov. 2009. Web. May 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/nov/20/brian-thomas-dream-strangler-tragedy>.
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