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McMillan preAP Biology Chapter 37-Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

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Kathy McMillan

on 16 March 2013

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Transcript of McMillan preAP Biology Chapter 37-Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

SA node (sinoatrial) is stimulated by electrical impulses “pacemaker”
AV node (atrioventricular) pumps the blood to body
Blood Vessels
Arteries- carry O2 rich blood
Capillaries- where O2 is absorbed in tissues and CO2 is taken up in blood
Veins- carry O2 poor blood- use valves to keep blood pumping back to heart Thymus- makes T cells- recognize foreign invaders
Spleen- cleanses the blood and removes damaged blood cells
Has phagocytes to destroy bacteria and microorganisms
Edema- swelling of tissue due to excess fluid accumulation when lymphatic vessels are blocked due to injury or disease Lymphatic System A network of vessels, nodes and organs called the lymphatic system collects fluid (called lymph) lost by blood and returns it back to circ system
Lymph is returned through superior vena cava
Lymph nodes act as filters trapping bacteria and microorganisms that cause disease Lymphatic System 45% red, white and platelets
55% plasma- 90% water 10% other
Albumins, globulins and fibrinogen 37-2 Blood and Lymphatic System Consists of heart, blood vessels and blood
The Heart
Pericardium- protective sac of tissue surrounding the heart
Myocardium- thick layer of muscles in the walls of the heart- pump blood thru heart
4 chambers: 2 atria- upper chambers
2 ventricles- lower chambers 37-1 Circulatory System Ch 37 Circulatory and Respiratory Movement of air into and out of the lungs
The diaphragm contracts and rib cage expands to increase volume
Creates pressure that fills the lungs
When the rib cage is lowered the air is forced out
Controlled by medulla oblongata
Cells monitor the CO2 level in the blood Breathing Pulmonary arteries bring O2 poor blood to the alveoli where O2 is absorbed into the capillaries
Pulmonary veins carry O2 rich blood back to the heart Gas Exchange White- leukocytes
No hemoglobin
Produced in red bone marrow
Contain nuclei- can live for months or years
Guard against infection, fight parasites and attack bacteria
Lymphocytes- produce antibodies (proteins) that destroy pathogens Blood Cells Red- Erythrocytes
Transport oxygen
Color from hemoglobin- iron-containing protein that binds to O2 in lungs and transports it to tissues
Produced in red bone marrow
No nuclei- live for about 120 days- destroyed by liver and spleen Blood Cells #1 cause of death in US is Heart Disease
Atherosclerosis- fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
Most dangerous in coronary arteries because they bring O2 to the heart itself and w/o it tissue dies and causes heart attack
Blood clots can break free and get stuck in a vessel that leads to the brain causing a stroke- death of brain cells
Hypertension - high blood pressure
Weaken or damage heart muscle
Increases risk of heart attack and stroke Diseases Systolic- pressure when ventricles contract
Diastolic- pressure when ventricles relax
Health BP= 120/80 Blood Pressure Right- pulmonary circulation- pumps blood from heart to the lungs- CO2 leaves the blood and O2 is absorbed
Left- systemic circulation- pumps O2 rich blood from heart to rest of the body
Valves- flaps of connective tissue between atria and ventricles creating a one-way flow Circulation through Body DON’T DO IT!
Causes diseases like chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer AND its addicting because of the nicotine
Don’t smoke
I DON’T WANT YOU TO DIE! Tobacco Use Process of gas exchange between the blood, air and tissues
Consists of nose pharynx larynx trachea bronchi lungs 37-3 Respiratory System Platelets
Cell fragments that join with plasma to help clotting
Hemophilia- genetic disorder with defective protein in clotting pathway Blood Cells Chapter 37
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