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shrok ashraf

on 20 October 2015

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Transcript of Cancer

is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth
cells divide uncontrollably to form


of tissue called tumors
Benign tumors
stay in one spot
demonstrate limited growth
Malignant tumors

a cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymphatic systems, in a process called

that cell manages to divide, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called
Cause of cancer
Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of
growth division death (apoptosis)

break down in the process

uncontrollably grow

do not die.

Genes - the DNA type
mutations to DNA and therefore, alterations to
the genes involved in cell division.
Four key types of gene
Tumor suppressor genes
Suicide genes control apoptosis

tell the cell to kill itself if something goes wrong
Tell cells when to divide
Tell cells when not to divide
DNA-repair genes
instruct a cell to repair damaged DNA

class of substances that are directly responsible for damaging DNA, promoting or aiding cancer.
Compounds in car exhaust fumes
Radiation such as gamma and x-rays
Genes-the family type
a genetic predisposition that is inherited from family members.
it's possible to be born with certain genetic mutations that makes one statistically more likely to develop cancer later in life.
Other factors
2-Some viruses

cervical cancer

Hepatitis B and C
liver cancer

HIV (immunodeficiency)
The UV rays


The risk



cervical cancer (HPV)
liver cancer (B&C)
Diagnosis of cancer
To confirm the disease .


CT scans

ultrasound scans

MRI scans

Imaging techniques
Extracting cancer cells and looking at them under a microscope

The only way to diagnose
Treatment of cancer
1) Surgery
The oldest known treatment for cancer.
If metastasis
Possible to completely cure a patient surgically
Ex. Removal of the prostate, a breast or testicle
2) Radiation
Destroys cancer by focusing high-energy rays
(high-energy gamma-rays or x-rays )
on the cancer cells
Used as a standalone treatment to
shrink a tumor or destroy cancer cells
3) Chemotherapy
Utilizes chemicals that interfere with the cell division process
damaging proteins or DNA

side effects such as
hair loss, nausea, fatigue, and vomiting
4)Hormone therapy
Breast and prostate cancer
Therapy alter hormone production in the body so that cancer cells stop growing
5) Immunotherapy
aims to get the body's immune system to fight the tumor.
Using cancer-specific immune system cells
Managed to make cancer-specific immune system cells from iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells) to destroy cancer cells.

liver cancer
are more likely to develop those cancers than nonsmokers
cancers of :
larynx (voice box)
pancreas, or cervix.
also acute myeloid leukemia
Screening tests
Certain chemicals
asbestos benzene
Certain hormones
Studies shows that menopausal hormone therapy
as estrogen alone or estrogen with progestin) may
increase the risk of breast cancer, heart attack, stroke, or blood clots.
Symptoms you Shouldn't ignore !!
Unexplained Weight Loss
every day and lasts for several weeks
ovarian cancer
Breast Changes
Regular breast self-exams and check
for lumps
Symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer include
thickening of the skin
on the breast.
Between-Period Bleeding or Other Unusual Bleeding
early sign and symptom of endometrial cancer
GI bleeding may be a sign of colorectal cancer
Skin Changes
changes in shape or color
excessive scaling

are common signs of
skin cancer
Difficulty Swallowing
gastrointestinal (GI) cancer such as esophageal cancer
Blood in the Wrong Place
Blood in stoo
l >>> hemorrhoid, or it may be a sign of
colon cancer
Blood in the urine >> may be mistaken for menstrual blood
(may be a sign of kidney or bladder cancer)
Mouth Changes
Unexplained indigestion
White patches inside the mouth precancerous condition
called leukoplakia
that can lead to

oral cancer.
Enlarged lymphnodes
under your armpit or in your neck may be a sign of possible cancer
Persistent Cough

If you do not have a cold, allergies, the flu, and you have a prolonged cough lasting more than three to four weeks
Common Cancer Myths and Misconceptions
Is cancer a death sign ?
in the US :
Five-year survival rates for some cancers, such as breast, prostate, and thyroid cancers

Exceeds 90 %
about 66 %
The 5-year survival rate for all cancers combined is currently

Will eating sugar make my cancer worse?
Is cancer contagious?
Does my attitude—positive or negative—determine my risk of, or likely recovery from, cancer?
Do cell phones cause
NO !
Are there herbal products that can cure cancer?
If someone in my family has cancer, does it mean that i will ABSOLUTELY get cancer, too?
The wrong way to deal with a cancer patient ?

The story of
Judy Michaiel

As a cancer patient ..
It is hard to deal with this emotionally and physically, if any of you know someone that has cancer, try not to treat them too different, don’t step on their toes but be supportive and let them allow you in at their own pace and will.
If they don’t it is not because they don’t trust you though .. in times of frustration it may seem or come out that way. At the end of the day they feel like they have become a specimen and any normality that they can maintain they will.
Letting people in can sometimes be a very hard and slow process, but it is about the ones that you love and that love you that get the first steps through the doorway and into their life and aspects of their treatment.
Look after them but leave them some dignity, they are still people and
they still like a little privacy."


Be prepared for changes in your loved one's behavior and mood.

Encourage your loved one to be active and independent, as much as possible, to help him or her regain a sense of self-reliance and confidence.

Be realistic about your own needs.

Don't hesitate to ask other family members and friends for help. They will appreciate the opportunity.
So ..

by Shrouk Ashraf

Mammography :
Mammography is a type of x-ray specifically designed to view the breast.

Pap smear test.
Cells are gently scraped from the outside of a woman's cervix and vagina. A pathologist then identifies any precancerous or cancerous cells.

Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)
This test finds blood in the feces, or
stool, which can be a sign of polyp or

Low-dose helical or spiral computed tomography (CT) scan
A CT scan creates a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body with an x-ray machine.

Digital rectal examination (DRE).

A DRE is a test in which the doctor inserts a gloved lubricated finger into a man’s rectum and feels the surface of the prostate for any irregularities.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test.

Skin self-examination
Complete self-examination

Breast cancer
Clinical breast examination
: A medical professional looks and feels for any changes in the breast’s size or shape.
Breast self-examination
Cervical cancer
Smears are tested also for
HPV infection
Colorectal cancer

Lung cancer
Prostate cancer
Skin cancer

Poor diet and lack of physical activity
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