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China During the Age of Imperialism

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Lea Rivera

on 11 February 2013

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Transcript of China During the Age of Imperialism

Great Britain Ch na India -China is the third largest country in the World, just behind Russia and Canada
-It is located in east Asia
-The Himalayan Mountains, Gobi desert and Pacific surround and isolate China from the rest of the world Where is the region in the world? Why were the Europeans interested in this area? -Opium is a habit-forming narcotic made from the poppy plant
-It was used by doctors to relieve pain
-During this time, most of China's opium came from India, where poppy plants had long been cultivated and opium consumed -The British took control of China through the Opium War which occurred from 1840 to 1842
-Britain had begun growing opium in India
-British merchants then began smuggling opium into China in order to balance their purchases of tea for export to Britain
-Requested Queen Victoria to stop the opium trade
-The British government ignores the request
-In 1839, China enforced its prohibitions on the importation of opium by destroying at Guangzhou a large quantity of opium confiscated from British merchants
-Great Britain, which had been looking to end China's restrictions on foreign trade, responded by sending gunboats to attack several Chinese coastal cities -The British were then able to use the plant for smoking to sell to China
-British and Indian traders sold Indian opium to coastal Chinese traders
-They in turn smuggled it along the numerous rivers to inland markets
-Since the product itself was addicting trade quickly increased -But Chinese government saw the narcotic, opium, as a 'poison' that was a discouragement to their customs
-They knew that if one were to become addicted, it would result in poor judgement and no control of their actions
-China threatened to cut off all trade with the British if opium trade did not cease, but merchants continued to smuggle the product in
-This then lead to the Opium War -Due to China being so self-sufficient, the Chinese had very little interest in trading with the West
-There was the imbalance of trade; worked in China's favor
-British imported millions of pounds of tea from China every year and exported goods worth much less
-They made up for the difference in silver, thus draining Britain's silver supply
-British merchants wanted to find a product that the Chinese would buy large quantities of
-Eventually they discovered opium The Opium War (1840-1842) -The first Opium War, also known as the first Anglo-Chinese War
-was fought between the United Kingdom and China, which was then under the rule of the Qing Dynasty
-The war spread through a few other coastal areas, with a few Chinese ports as the battleground
-Due to the Chinese outdated ships and weaponry they were defeated against the British's steam-powered gunboats and sophisticated cannons
-The Chinese then signed the Treaty of Nanjing, which they referred to as the Unequal Treaty due to the fact that the British had no obligations to follow according to it
-The Island of Honk Kong was given to the British and, after signing another treaty in 1844, the US and other foreign citizens gained extraterritorial rights in several ports in China
-The victory of a small British army over the Chinese army with a greater manpower turned out be a historical event for the British forces, while the Qing Dynasty was left in disgrace What were the benefits for them to rule this area? -At that time, China had the largest population in the world
-Europeans saw it as a large gain in profit through the selling of opium
-For decades the only area they allowed foreign trade was the southern port of Guangzhou
-They wanted and needed a way to get access to more Chinese markets and customers
-Britain reaped huge profits as the demand for opium increased, but at the same time disrupting China’s economy
-Under British influence, China's economy was exposed to foreign exploitation and helped bring about the spheres of influence What type of rule was imposed in this area and why?
-British enforced the Spheres of Influence in which foreign powers reserved special rights to trade, profits, and investment
-Caused China to become divided under the use of other countries such as France, Russia, Germany and Japan
-China was already an established empire, so it could not be easily conquered the same way the British did in Africa and India
-Free from colonization since Britain and the US traded there -The Chinese were helpless to prevent Western imperialism since much of China was in turmoil at the time
-The decline of the Qing Dynasty was another factor that enabled the British to dominate China
-China suffered from:
-a weak central government
-civil unrest When and how did the European power (s) take control? Which European country wanted to
take over China?

Great Britain What impact did imperialism have on this area? What were the advantages and disadvantages for this area under imperial control? -power of the emperor and government was weakened due to increase of foreign influence contrary to ethnic lines
-They lost Korea, Vietnam, Burma and Hong Kong, later given back to the Chinese
-Spheres of Influence easy way of ideas to travel among imperial powers and allowed trade with other nations
-Increase in China's wealth
-Introduced modern ways to ancient society-weapons, manufactures, trading methods, and political thought and ideas
-Brought about the Open Door Policy by the US
-This protected American trading rights in China and eliminated the possibility of another country taking control and not allowing US trade
-Chinese government was weakened -"taiping" means great peace
-Hong Xiuquan dreamed of an encounter with various heavenly figures -Connected with Christian beliefs, Hong interpreted it to mean that God the Father and Jesus Christ had commanded him to rid the world of evil and demons, starting with China
-by 1853, 1 million people, mostly peasant men and women, captured the city of Nanjing and declared it his capital
-Eventually Qing gained control
-Imperial troops, local militias, and British and French forces all fought against the Taiping
-Rebellion ended by 1864; lasted 14 years
-At least 20 million died Taiping Rebellion Boxer Rebellion -Was a campaign against Dowager Empress's rule and foreign privileges
-Poor peasants and workers resented privileges granted to foreigners
-Also disliked Chinese Christians, who were protected by foreign missionaries
-Formed secret group, "Society of Harmonious Fists" and soon became known as the Boxers
-1900, attacked Beijing and kept it under siege for a few months
-Soldiers from Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Japan, and the US defeated the Boxers
-Strong sense of nationalism emerges
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