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Transcript of Machu Picchu
•Built by the Incan ruler Pachacuti.
•Believed to be used by rulers as a retreat, although scholars still do not know for sure exactly what the site was used for. Continued... •Officially discovered in 1911 by Hiram Bingham. Bingham (far left) and team of explorers.
•Location was known by locals, but wasn’t officially documented or explored until Bingham’s expedition.
•Bingham was led to the site by a young local boy.
•Bingham believed the city was actually the lost city of Vilcabamba.
•Machu Picchu turned out to be an entirely different lost city. •Because the city was abandoned by the Incan people, the Spanish conquistadors never found the well hidden city.
•Due to the fact that it was never found, no documentation of the city existed in the records kept by the Spanish at the time. And Lastly... Architecture The Discovery & Origin of Machu Picchu There are 170 buildings.
16 fountains (fed by the underground springs).
There are thousands of stones. The Inca people got the large stones from the nearby granite quarry.
They carved the granite boulders with river rock.
They fitted them together without Mortar.
They were resistant to earthquakes and weather.
To this day a knife blade cannot fit between the rocks fitted together. Architecture Continued... Some doors have as stone rings and central trunks to make them more secure.
The Architectural Design of the Machu Picchu was based on Cuzco, the Inca Empire’s capital city.
The city is U-shaped. In the North: religious sector. In the South: houses and workshops.
The main buildings include: used for worship (Probably Separate slides for each w/pictures). Architecture... The Temple of the Sun Agriculture Intihuatana Stone The Sacred Rock Temple of the Three Windows The Main Temple Located high in the mountains of Southern Peru They developed many different plants for food and medicinal purposes.
They knew how to cultivate the soil efficiently, they understood the need of proper drainage, correct methods of irrigation, and soil conservation by means of terraces constructed at great expense.
First uses of fertilizers.
Dependent on terrace agriculture. First introduction of the potato.
Not only engineered and designed the potato but in addition several collaborations of corn that they called maize.
Canihua was a pig weed type plant that was unknown to the Europeans that was grown in Machu Picchu and fed the people. Agriculture continued.... Herbal medicine was also first introduced to the people of Machu Picchu
The foods that were grown in the land was used for feeding and healing
Terracing was first introduced to agriculture due to the lack of even fields
Terracing allowed a greater amount of land to be developed
Terracing brought about the high demand for agriculture and turned the change from hunter/gatherer to farmers and land developers The Downfall of the Inca Empire Machu Picchu’s army was always ready to act. All the borders, especially the ones next to the rain forest, were strongly watched by soldiers. They were brave fighters and many folks preferred to make alliances with them instead war.
In 1430, when Machu Picchu defeated the `Chankas' after a long war, this marks the beginning of military expansion.
The End of the Inca Empire was in 1532 with the arrived of the Spaniards.
In 1523, the first news about the existence of a rich and powerful State in the south had arrived to Panama; the Inca Empire. In order to conquer it and obtain the Inca’s gold and silver, the Spaniards had organized an expedition with 180 soldiers, 67 horses and 3 cannons. Francisco Pizarro leading the expedition. The Fall of the Inca Empire The Incas soldiers were unarmed and only had simple weapons such as spears.
The Spaniards arrived at the perfect time, because after the death of the Emperor, his two sons were having a civil war to decide who would take over the power. This war divided the Inca-armies between the north and south. On top of that, Western viruses began to appear in Machu Picchu.
After a while one of the brothers, Atahualpa, defeated the other. Pizarro went with his men though the valleys in the "Andes", with the objective of capturing the "Inca", Atahualpa.
It is certain that the arms and the horses of the Spaniards frightened the Incas, but the superiority of the Spanish arms was compensated with the huge numerical superiority of the Incas. Continued... The primitive fear caused by the horses disappeared soon. The Incas would avoid facing the horses walking through the mountains and rain forest. They would make holes so the horses would fell down and break their legs, after words the Spaniards would be forced to sacrifice the animals.
Pizzaro captured Atahualpa in the city of Cajamarca, located in the north of Peru in 1532 and was imprisoned.
In 1533 he was executed for “crimes against the Spanish state”.
The Spaniards then captured Cusco and eventually Machu Picchu was dominated. Inca Religion The Incas were polytheistic.
They left no written record of their religion.
Although, they did leave an oral record of their beliefs that has been passed down from generation to generation through the centuries. Viracocha is the name of the Inca god of creation.
All things and all other gods came from Viracocha.
The legend is that he rose out of Lake Titicaca after the Great Flood that destroyed all life.
Viracocha made the Inca out of the clay of the earth and the rocks in the mountains.
He also created the sun god Inti who fathered Manco Capac, the first Inca Emperor and Mamaquilla (the Moon Goddess), the first female deity. Religion... Manco Capac The sun god Inti (the sun god) was considered to be the most important god at the time.
Inti gave the Inca warmth and light, he was often referred to as “The Giver of Life.”
Many worshipped supernatural powers, which are identified by objects or places. They were called huacas and are scattered throughout the Inca Empire.
It was rare in Inca culture to perform sacrificing rituals.
The Inca reserved human and animal sacrifice for special occasions such as important festivals and the crowning of a new Emperor.
Inca religion was rich with nature worship and festivals. A few Inca Gods & Goddesses... Viracocha- The creation god from which all life and all other gods came.
Inti- The inca sun god was one of the most important gods in their religion. All Inca Emperors were said to descend from this god. Inti is represented throughout Inca culture by the golden sun disk. Inti (the Sun God) Golden Sun Disk Gods & Goddesses Continued... Konira Wirakocha- This is the trickster god. He wanders around dressed as an impoverished traveler. With a single word he could create fields and terraced hillsides.
Mama Quilla- Mama Quilla is the moon goddess, goddess of marriage and the protector of women. She was the wife of Inti and the daughter of Viracocha.
Supai- Supai was the god of death and greed. Supai was greatly feared by the Inca and many children were sacrificed in order to appease him.
Chiqui Illapa- The thunder god. This was the god the Inca worshiped for rain.
Pachacamac- God of the earth. Considered the creator god by the peoples who lived in Peru before the Inca conquest.
•Manco Capac- The son of Inti. Manco Capac founded the city of Cuzco and was worshipped as the son of the Sun. Pachacamac (Earth God) Manco Capac Interactive Activity Inca Food and Music! Potatoes were the main food of the Incas. Beef Jerky began with the Incas.
The meat used was generally llama or alpaca meat and was freeze-dried and stored.
It is still widely eaten today in Peru and Bolivia in various recipes, usually being reconstituted by cooking.
The Incas called this dried meat "charqui (charkey)" which in English pronunciation became "jerky." The Incas were the first to use popcorn.
It was found to be an ideal way to preserve corn (maize), which was one of their most important foods.
Popcorn and other popped grains are consumed currently throughout different refions of the Andes. Inca Food Facts: Potatoes Corn & Popcorn Beef "Charqui" Jerky Inca Food and Live Music Please enjoy the POPCORN and BEEF JERKY!
*The popcorn and beef jerky are modern day representations of the popcorn and charqui the Inca had.* While you experience these Inca inspired snacks, please sit back and listen to "Inca Son" by Guerrero Inca (Inca Warrior). Questions? And that concludes our presentation of Machu Picchu and the Incas! The Condor Temple