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Chemistry of Ice-Cream Making: Lowering the Freezing Point of Water

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by

Kenneth Mcmillan

on 25 October 2014

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Transcript of Chemistry of Ice-Cream Making: Lowering the Freezing Point of Water

Introduction
Hypothesis
My hypothesis is that the salt/sugar will change the freezing point of the water by 15 degrees. I also, think that
freezing point depression
can work on other solvents but it cannot work on liquids with a lot of/too much salt or sugar. I think that salt/sugar changes the freezing point of the water by mixing with the water and making it more dense. I believe I will conduct this experiment.
Materials & Procedures
My Materials Are:
Chemistry of Ice Cream Making kit (1). Includes:
Test tubes, about 18 millimeters (mm) by 150 mm (7)
Test tube rack
250 mL beakers (6)
100 mL graduated cylinder
Gram balance. If you are not purchasing the kit make sure you use a balance accurate to 0.1 grams, such as the Fast Weigh MS-500-BLK Digital Pocket Scale, 500 by 0.1 G, available from Amazon.com
Thermometer capable of reading at least as low as −10°C
Stir rods (2)
Large Styrofoam® cup (12 ounces [oz.] or more)
Water
Ice
Table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) (500 g or 18 oz.)
Granulated sugar (sucrose) (360 g or 13 oz.)
Small spoon or scoop, for scooping up salt and sugar
Lab notebook
My Procedures are:

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/FoodSci_p013.shtml#procedure
Conclusion
So, in coclusion my hypothesis was incorrect and. My hypothesis was: "the salt/sugar will change the freezing point of the water by 15 degrees".But in actuallity the temperature/freezing point for each tube changed by an average of 4 degrees. I also thought that the sugar/salt wouldn't work when there is "a lot/ too much" salt or sugar in the water, but I was wrong about that aswell. If I did this experiment one thing I would do differently is I would've definently had done the project multiple times with different variables to see what would happen.
Data Analysis
Variables
Controlled Variable:
The Solvent ( or the
water
)

Independent Variable:
Salt/Sugar

Dependent Variable:
Freezing Point of Water (
Freezing Point Depression
)
How many degrees does the salt/sugar change the the
freezing point of water
? Can the
"freezing point depression"
work work on anything besides water? How does adding salt ( or other
solutes
) affect the
freezing point of water
? Can
I
conduct an
actual EXPERIMENT ABOUT THIS TOPIC?
Question
Many people have made homemade Ice-Cream. First, use an old-fashioned hand crank to smooth en the cream. Next, you added a mixture of salt rocks and ice to the smooth cream and created Ice-Cream. B
on Appétit.
During the winter time, snow trucks come and put salt on the roads. They do this to prevent car accidents do to hazardous driving conditions like
black
ice.
In Both examples I gave you, salt was used to lower to the temperature in which water can freeze (which is the
freezing point
).
This happens when salt is added to water, this is called the "
Freezing Point Depression
". Normally
PURE WATER
will freeze at
0 Degrees Celsius.
However water mixed with salt, freezes below
0 Degrees Celsius.
Freezing Point Depression doesn't only occur when salt and water is mixed together. It happens with all types of solutions { Solutions are
homo
geneous mixtures when the solute ( the minor component dissolved in a solvent ) dissolves in the solvent ( the liquid in which the solute dissolves into other substances ) }.
Adding salt to water obviously changes the freezing point of water. However, by how many degrees? Is it one degree, twenty degrees, half a degree. We don't know, but we're about to find out. That's why my project is about the....
Lowering the Freezing Point of Water
Kenneth McMillan
Science
Mr.Curtis
Blue

Ice bath before freezing: 20° Celsius
Ice bath during freezing: -10° Celsius
Ice bath during freezing: -20 Celsius
















My analysis is that during the experiment, each of the test tubes temperature kept decreasing over time.
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