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Logical Argumentation

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Jennifer Michelle

on 20 August 2017

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Transcript of Logical Argumentation

Definition of Logic
"The ability to call nonsense"
Need to Know
1. Logical appeals (arguments/ rhetoric) is a method of PERSUASION

2. It is based on evidence and reasoning, even if the reasoning is illogical

3. Logic does not rule human behavior. (See love...)

4. It's not universal. There are things we don't know. People once believed that the Earth was the center of the universe.

Arguments
Are considered either "valid" or "invalid"
Inference
You can ONLY infer from what has been given to you (the premises)
Conclusion
Usually, the last line in a given text. What the author concludes based on his/her premises and inferences.
Premise
premises, the assumptions the argument are built on;
state them directly; and
failing to state your premise/assumption is often viewed as suspicious, and will likely reduce the acceptance of your argument.
Logical Argumentation
Arguments have three aspects:

1. The PREMISE
The student looked at another
person's test.

2. The INFERENCE(S) Made
The student did not know the answer to the question.

3. The Conclusion
The student was cheating.
Key Words to Identify a Premise
Because
Assuming
Since
Obviously (<--never use...like ever. never. ever.)
Given
Debate Hint: Try to get the other person to agree with you, first.
Why??
Key Words to Identify Inferences
Therefore
Thereby
The implication being
Which caused
Needs to be supported by evidence (when writing an argument) or refuted with logic (when challenging another's)
Most Common Types of Logical Fallacies
Circular Reasoning
Biased and/or Insufficient Sample vs. Population
Ad Hominen
Faulty Analogy
Straw Man
The Michael Jackson: It's Black-or-White
Non Sequiter
As Populum
Equivocation
Appeal to Closure
Argument for Inertia

Just in Case Defense
Overgeneralization
Appealing to Ethos
Red Herring
Reductionism
Burden of Proof
Snow Job
Slippery Slope
Not Like Us
Testimonial
TINA
Transfer
Call to Action
Two Wrongs Don't Make A Right
Hasty Conclusion
Argument for Motives
Ad Baculam
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Heaven
Bandwagon
Begging the Question
The Complex Question
Essentializing
False Analogy
Guilt by Association

Activity
QUESTIONS ONLY
You must only ask
APPROPRIATE/POLITE
questions. If you give a statement, fail to answer, or take longer than five seconds, you lose.
Example:
Premise:
You remind me of a Russian doll.
Inference:
Full of yourself.
Conclusion:
______________
to construct rational arguments
to understand political and bias commentary
to differentiate amongst types of arguments

Rhetorical devices can be classified by three primary appeals...
An ARGUMENT refers to both its organization and the methods by which the author supports his/her CLAIMS, positions on the issue
An argument can be called RHETORIC, and the way an author constructs his argument is through RHETORICAL DEVICES (e.g., anecdotes, personal appeals, calls to authority)
How do I determine if an argument is valid or invalid?
GO DEEPER!
Arguments can be presented visually or orally
Who is the -
Speaker
Audience
Purpose
What is the-
Premise
Inference
Conclusion
PREMISE- INFERENCE- CONCLUSION
PREMISE- INFERENCE- CONCLUSION
PREMISE- INFERENCE- CONCLUSION
Full transcript