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APA Style Workshop
Transcript of APA Style Workshop
Subject Specialist Librarian
Argosy University, Seattle
email@example.com APA Style Workshop The rules of APA Style, detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, offer sound guidance for writing with simplicity, power, and concision. APA Style has been adapted by many disciplines and is used by writers around the world. --American Psychological Association. (2011, Jan. 19). Publication Manual. Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/.
I highly encourage students to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition and the Concise Rules of APA Style.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition (2nd Printing)
Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 2010
Concise Rules of APA Style
Call Number: BF76.7 .C66 2010
All page numbers and chapters mentioned in this presentation are in reference to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition unless otherwise noted. RefWorks, a bibliographic management tool, is also available via the Online Library and will help create in-text citations and a list of references in APA Sixth Edition format. Webinars on RefWorks are regularly offered. RefWorks APA Style Format Font: 12 point, Times New Roman
Line Spacing: Always double-space text. Triple- or quadruple-space before and after a displayed quotation. Only use single-spacing or one-and-a-half spacing in tables and/or figures.
Sentence Length and Alignment: The maximum length of a sentence is 6 ½ inches (about 3-5 lines).
Never break words at the end of a line. Margins: All margins must be 1”.
Paragraphs and Indentations: Indent the first line of every paragraph and the first line of every footnote. To indent use the tab key. Please review Author Responsibilities. Section 8.03, Page 229 Page Numbers: Beginning with the title page, the document should be numbered consecutively, with the page number in the upper right hand corner of each page (in the header).
See the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition pages 41-53 for sample papers. Page Numbers Header: Use a running head, which is an abbreviated title printed at the top of each document page. The running head must be capitalized and cannot exceed 50 characters. The first page of your document actually includes the phrase “Running head” as shown below. Only include the phrase “Running head” on the first page; the remaining pages will simply include the abbreviated title. Section 2.01, Page 23 Running Head Page Order Title page
Appendices Start your abstract, text, references, tables, figures, and appendices on separate pages. The title page (first page) of your paper should include the running head, the full title, the author name (byline), and affiliation. This information should be positioned in the upper half of the page. The author note is not always required; ask your professor about this. The abstract is a “brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article.” It must be:
Nonevaluative (report rather than evaluate)
Coherent and Readable
Concise (150-250 words)
Please see section 2.04, pages 25-27. Writing Style Levels of Heading: See table 3.1, page 62 or the OWL at Purdue (the OWL has better examples of levels of heading: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/16/)
Continuity in Presentation of Ideas page 65
Smoothness of Expression page 65
Tone: Scientific Writing (write in a way that will educate the reader) pages 66-67
Economy of Expression (avoid redundancy, wordiness, and watch the length of paragraphs and sentences; avoid making these too short or too long) page 67
Avoid colloquial expressions. The Publication Manual uses the example of “write up” versus “report.” “Write up” is a colloquial expression.
Avoid jargon. Jargon is the overuse of a technical vocabulary.
Pronouns: Avoid confusing readers with pronouns; make sure it is obvious what the pronoun refers to. For example, writing “this test” versus “this” avoids confusion. Section 3.20, page 79 Point of View Both first and third person point of view are permissible: Third person objective point of view includes using such pronouns as “they, one, he, or she” rather than “I or we.”
Use first person when describing steps taken in your experiment or research. An experiment (or paper) cannot attempt to demonstrate, control unwanted variables, interpret findings, compare, show, or indicate. I or we (meaning the author or authors) can replace “the experiment” or “the findings.” Section 3.09, Page 69
When applicable, use the active, not passive, voice:
Preferred: I conducted the survey in a web-based setting.
Nonpreferred: The survey was conducted in a web-based setting. Highly recommended: Review sections 3.18-3.23, pages 77-86 for a grammar review and Chapter 4 for the mechanics of APA Style (punctuation, brackets, quotation marks, etc.). Paraphrasing Definition of paraphrase:
1. a restatement of a text or passage giving the meaning in another form, as for clearness; rewording.
2. the act or process of restating or rewording.
Review the APA Style Blog’s entry on Citing Paraphrased Work in APA Style (http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/paraphrasing/) According to the Publication Manual, each time you paraphrase another author (i.e. summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words) you need to credit the source in the text (p. 15). The OWL at Purdue offers a helpful section on paraphrasing (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/).
Please see one of their paraphrasing exercises below:
The original passage:
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
A legitimate paraphrase:
In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). Paraphrasing Example Organizing Your Paper: Introduction Introduce the problem/Section 2.05, Page 27
Why is this problem important?
Refer to previous work in the subject area
What are the primary and secondary hypotheses and objectives of your paper?
Links to theory
“A good introduction a[ddresses these issues] in just a few pages and, by summarizing the relevant arguments and the past evidence, gives the reader a firm sense of [the problem/hypothesis].” Organizing Your Paper: Text Body Support hypothesis clearly and concisely.
Replace vague words with powerful words.
Wordy: Suzie believed but could not confirm that Billy had feelings of affection for her. (14 words)
Concise: Suzie assumed that Billy adored her. (6 words)
Examine every word in a sentence.
Wordy: The teacher demonstrated some of the various ways and methods for cutting words from my essay that I had written for class. (22 words)
Concise: The teacher demonstrated methods for cutting words from my essay. (10 words)
Wordy: Ludwig's castles are an astounding marriage of beauty and madness. By his death, he had commissioned three castles. (18 words)
Concise: Ludwig's three castles are an astounding marriage of beauty and madness. (11 words) Avoid flowery, creative writing. Creative writing includes the overuse of metaphors and descriptive terms. Remember, APA Style writing is scholarly (scientific) writing.
Reducing bias in language / Sections 3.11-17
When in doubt, be more specific rather than less.
Avoid using gendered pronouns. For example, use “an individual” rather than “she or he”).
Be aware of social, political, and cultural sensitivities: call people what they want to be called. APA Style Blog, “A Little Respect”
Be specific when mentioning age (“senior citizen” rather than “elderly”) Section 3.16, Page 76 Organizing Your Paper: Conclusion/Discussion See Discussion Section. Section 2.08, Page 35
Open the discussion with a clear statement of the support or nonsupport for your original hypotheses.
Do not simply reformulate and repeat points already made; each new statement should contribute to the support of your hypotheses and to the reader’s understanding of the problem. Crediting/Citing Sources You must credit your sources to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is illegal. Direct Quotation of Sources:
Less them 40 words: in-text citation enclosed with double quotation marks.
More than 40 words: display as freestanding block of text with no quotation marks.
More than 400 words: ask permission from the author. THIS IS CUMULATIVE. Section 6.03, Page 170-171
Directly Quoting Material? The author, year, and page number(s) are required. Section 6.03, Page 170-171
Paraphrasing Material? Only the author and the year are required. You are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number. Section 6.04, Page 171
Avoid self-plagiarism. Section 6.02, Page 170
Always feel free to contact the author/publisher for permission to quote, reprint, or adapt a work. Citation Styles In-Text Smith (2011) discovered that “psychopharamaceuticals for children…” (p. 212) One Work by One Author DIRECT QUOTATION One Work by One Author PARAPHASED MATERIAL Smith (2011) discovered that psychopharamaceuticals for children… Parenthetical One Work by One Author DIRECT QUOTATION The effects of “psychopharmaceuticals on children are currently believed to be beneficial” (Smith, 2011, p. 212). The effects of psychopharmaceuticals on children are currently believed to be beneficial (Smith, 2011). One Work by One Author PARAPHASED MATERIAL Citing Continued One Work by Multiple Authors:
First citation in text and in each new paragraph: Weir, Schneider, Kazuo, and Torrez (2001) found that…
After first citation(s), within a paragraph: Weir et al. found… See Basic Citation Styles Table 6.1, page 177 for examples of citations of works by one to six authors and citations of works by groups. Citing Online Material Cite direct quotations of online material with the author, year, and page number in parentheses. If no page numbers exist, cite numbered paragraphs with the abbreviation para. If the online material includes headings but no formal page or paragraph numbers are visible, cite the heading and number the paragraph(s) yourself: (Smith, 2001, “NIMH Psychopharmaceutical Discussion,” para. 6). --Concise Rules of APA Style, Section 6.05, page 171 References APA Style requires a list of references rather than a bibliography. The format for references is moderately consistent, as shown by the example for a periodical reference below:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp- pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxx However, there are many different reference types, all of which are listed with examples in Chapter 7 (page 193) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition.
Your references must be listed alphabetically, in the format shown in the APA paper example. DOIs Electronic Sources and Locator Information and APA Style Guide to Electronic References
Section 6.31, Page 187
As more and more sources are published in electronic format, you will need to be familiar with electronic sources and locator information, especially DOIs.
What is a DOI?
A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a unique alpha-numeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically. The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article. Additional Resources The OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue is an excellent resource for APA style reference examples.
The OWL at Purdue is located at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
APA Style Blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/ Thanks for attending! If you would like:
A link to this presentation
A guide to using APA Style with Microsoft Word
A sample APA Style paper
A list of upcoming webinars
Please contact me:
206.393.3623 The APA recently published the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012); please use this conjunction with the Publication Manual. Today we will be reviewing APA Style in order to provide a comprehensive review suitable for undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students. Please note that dissertations require professional editing.