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First Wave of Feminism

This outline goes from 1792 until 1963

Jamie Pond

on 24 November 2018

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Transcript of First Wave of Feminism

The History of Feminism
Feminism begins in the U.S.
July 19th, 1848: Seneca Falls Convention, organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Women get the vote!
In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson supported the amendment that would give women the right to vote.
World War II
Cult of Domesticity
After WWII, women were expected to get married to a solider and begin her life as a housewife and mother.
Baby boom.
Racial Stereotypes Persist
Kinsey (1948 and 1953)

Johnson and Masters started really looking at human sexuality in 1966.
"I am the Third Wave"
Rebecca Walker is viewed by most, as starting third wave, in 1991 by proclaiming: “I am the Third Wave” in Ms. Magazine.

Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism in the late nineteenth century affected women’s entrance into colleges and universities.
When women could attend certain colleges and universities, but few were allowed them to graduate with degrees in the nineteenth century.
Fathers were discouraged from sending their daughters to college in lieu of finding a suitable husband.

Herbert Spencer, George Romanes, J. McGrigor Allan, Henry Maudsley
1807-U.S. stopped importing slaves
Whitney's Cotton Gin
At that convention a Declaration of Sentiments was issued, objecting to the following:

1. Women were not allowed to vote.
2. Women had to submit to laws when they had no voice in their formation.
3. Married women had no property rights (and 90% of women over 25 were married at that time.)
4. Husbands had legal power over and responsibility for their wives to the extent that they could imprison or beat them with impunity.
5. Divorce and child custody laws favored men, giving no rights to women
6. Women had to pay property taxes although they had no representation in the levying of these taxes.
7. Most occupations were closed to women and when women did work they were paid only a fraction of what men earned.
8. Women were not allowed to enter professions such as medicine or law.
9. Women had no means to gain an education since no college or university would accept women students.
10. With only a few exceptions, women were not allowed to participate in the affairs of the church.
11. Women were robbed of their self-confidence and self-respect, and were made totally dependent on men.
True Womanhood, True Manhood, and True Love

Angel in the House
Coventry Patmore
13th Amendment-got rid of slavery, 14th-Citizenship, 15th voting (1870)
Formation of the Ku Klux Klan
One Drop Rule
1896: Plessy v. Ferguson
Established Separate but Equal
The House of Representatives passed the amendment in Jan. 1918, but in October the Senate failed to pass the amendment by three votes.
In May 1919, the House of Representatives passed the amendment and in June the Senate passed the amendment.
The right to vote in America was finally granted to women in 1920. This was 144 years after the Revolutionary War granted men that "inalienable" right.

1954: Brown versus Board of Education
1955: Rosa Parks refuses to move.
Concurrent with the fight for the vote was the fight for women to control their reproductive systems.

The birth control movement was begun by Margaret Sanger, a public health nurse, around 1919, and continues to this day.

In 1936, birth control
was declassified as "obscene."
Television during this time included:
I Love Lucy
Father Knows Best
Leave it to Beaver
The Donna Reed Show
1963: Betty Friedan’s
The Feminine Mystique
becomes a bestseller.

Many women were not happy in the home and believed it was a personal problem rather than a social issue.
“The Pill” was on the market in 1960, but mainly for white married middle class women who got it from their doctor.
Racial Relations
Birth of a Nation
Based on Thomas Dixon’s
The Clansman
Full of HUGE historical inaccuracies!
Overwhelming rise in membership in the KKK
Plessy sat in a “whites only” railway car and refused to move to a “blacks only” railway car.

GI Bill of Rights
Excluded women and African Americans who served during WWII
Jim Crow laws-separate but equal
Brown's daughter Linda, a third grader, had to walk six blocks to her school bus stop to ride to Monroe Elementary, her segregated black school one mile (1.6 km) away, while Sumner Elementary, a white school, was seven blocks from her house.
Were there women or men before Rosa Parks who did the same thing?
Why was Rosa Parks an "ideal candidate" for the NAACP?
What is the EEOC?
Who were amongst the first to claim discrimination?
The Commission on the Status of Women was created by the Kennedy administration, with Eleanor Roosevelt as its chair.
The report issued by that commission in 1963 that documented discrimination against women in virtually every area of American life.
NOW (National Organization for Women) formed in 1966.
Black women were the unsung heroines organizing sit-ins, marches, and freedom rides.

Black women especially played an enormous role in helping to change their circumstances.

Black men were in the forefront and Black women “supported” them.

MLK Jr.’s “I have a dream” speech in 1963

Founded in 1965

EEOC—just the workplace (and for all, not just women).
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)---founded in 1909
Segregation and unequal treatment.

Everyday experiences

Addressed by:
Freedom Riders
Going to jail
Endured Beatings
1961, Mob Attacks Alabama bound Freedom Rider Bus

Many physicians and scientists believed that the body was a closed circuit (blood flow diversion).

Many Social Darwinists used evolution to justify keeping women out of college and the public arena.
Led by Alice Paul, this right was fought hard far.
Women were beaten by angry mobs.
Women were cut off financially by their spouses or fathers.
Women protested in the rain and snow.
Women went to jail and while there went on a hunger strike.
Any questions so far?
Interactions between blacks and whites mattered!
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibits discrimination within the workplace based on sex, race, religion, and ethnicity.
Participation and Homework
In groups of three to four and based on our rubric, determine what you believe everyone deserves for participation. Remember to put your names and your justification for the grade.

Read: "Decline of the Double Standard"
"The Decline of the Double Standard"
What is or was the “double standard”?
Virginity as a commodity
Affecting someone’s marriage-ability
Different sex drives?
Blame biology argument.
It wasn’t until 1965 that married couples in all states could obtain contraceptives legally.
Decline and increase in divorce?!?
More cohabitation
Go to college, get on The Pill.
What were some of the health risks associated with the Pill?
Women and their Bodies
In what ways were women guinea pigs for the medical profession?
Doctors consulting husbands when making decisions about women’s bodies.
Still an issue?
Women Stand Up!
Our Bodies Ourselves

Consciousness raising groups spread
Why were these groups important?

Growth in midwifery, more women go into medicine.
Anti-Miscegenation Laws
Loving versus Virginia (1967)
White sympathy
Black women versus black men?
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
Any Questions so far?
Mary Wollstonecraft publishes:
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Homosexuality was considered a mental disorder until 1973.
Recent treatments for homosexuality.
Before HIV, women who didn’t want sex but had access to birth control were viewed as frigid, weird, and/or labeled lesbians.
Not Wanting Sex
Many lesbians who were “out” were not accepted within the Women’s Rights Movement.
The Lavendar Menace
Investigated Playboy
Open about her own experiences with abortion.
Stigmatization surrounding this.
Safe access
Became an icon for the Women’s Movement.

Gloria Steinem
What were some men’s perceptions of “feminists”?
Sexism Within the Ranks!
Participation and Homework
In groups of three to four and based on our rubric, determine what you believe everyone deserves for participation. Remember to put your names and your justification for the grade.
Read: When Everything Changed, part 2: “Women’s Liberation”
Betty Friedan served as its first president.
Roe v Wade (1973)
This was due primarily because many feminists during this time, including Friedan, believed that allowing open (and “outed”) lesbians to be a part of the movement would suggest to the general public that feminist were man-hating lesbians.
Discuss Women's Liberation

Any Questions so far?
January 30th 2015
How is the phrase “The personal is political” relevant to what this chapter is about?
Women's Liberation
What was happening to the term feminism during this time?
How were “Women’s Lib” women different than the more mainstream Women’s rights group?
Miss America Pageant
Protest 1968
Vietnam---“’Girls say yes to boys who say no!’”
Political Lesbians
“’Blacks are oppressed, white women are suppressed’” (p.204).
What does this mean?
What was going on with Black families during this time?
Moynihan Report (1965) —”Black Families in Crisis”
Tuskegee Experiment (1932-1972)
Study of Syphilis in the African American community
How were "ideals" regarding women's "place" starting to shift?
Women's "Place"
What things stood out to you in regards to what was happening to the economy during this time?
Gas, oil shortages

War in Vietnam
What's the ERA?
“Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex” (Collins, 2010; p.213)

Who was Schlafly? What did she do?
Have problems at work? Then stay home!
Republican/Democrat differences
Shifting Tides
ERA=pro-abortion? Gay rights?

Anita Bryant and the anti-gay rights campaign.

ERA and Sexuality
How might language be important in terms of defining people and affecting how they are perceived as well as how they perceive themselves?
“Ms.” versus Mrs. or Miss
Stewardess versus flight attendant
Importance of Language
92nd Congress (1971 to 1973) only 13 women.

US Senate all male in 1973.

Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs in 1973
Title IX (1972)—equal federal funding for both sexes in public education
Depository Institutions Amendment (1982) allowed for women to buy homes on their own.
Geraldine Ferraro in 1984 –Vice President nominee.
1982: Women now outnumber men on college campuses
In groups of three to four and based on our rubric, determine what you believe everyone deserves for participation. Remember to put your names and your justification for the grade.
Read: When Everything Changed, part 3: "Backlash" and "You're Gonna Make It After All"
Participation and Homework
February 2nd, 2015
First wave day two
January 28th, 2015
Brief Review

Discuss "Backlash" and "You're Gonna Make It After all"
Sex and the Single Girl
(1962) suggested that women could have a sex life and (*gasp*) be single.

Deviants! The Threat of Lesbianism!
Constance Naden, Victorian poet and scientist
"I cannot let pass the occasion for remarking that in her case, as in other cases, the mental powers so highly developed in a woman are in some measure abnormal, and involve a physiological cost which the feminine organization will not bear without injury more or less profound” (p. 90).
After her death, her friend Herbert Spencer told one of her mentors:
The Fair Housing Act 1968
Brief review
Entrance "exams" to vote.
What were some major things going on during the 19th century when it came to inequality?
What was the major focus of first wave feminism?
When did first wave begin in the U.S.?
Brief review
When did first wave feminism begin? When did it end?
When did second wave feminism begin?
What was the major accomplishment of first wave feminism?
What did second wave feminists fight for?
How did race relations affect second wave feminism?
Power + Prejudice= Discrimination
Read: When Everything Changed, part 3: “Work and Children”
When Everything Changed, part 3: “The 1980s—Having It All”

Participation and Homework
In groups of three to four and based on our rubric, determine what you believe everyone deserves for participation. Remember to put your names and your justification for the grade.
February 4th, 2015
Brief Review
"Work and Children" and
"1980s" and "Having it all"
Brief Review
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Homosexuality declassified as a mental disorder (1973)
Civil Rights Act VII (1964)
Equal Pay Act (1963)
Northwest Airline doing away with appearance regulations
Title IX (1972)
More women went to college
Women started going into male professions such as law and medicine.
Integration—Brown versus Board of Education (1954)
Divorce laws change and child custody
Credit Cards and Lending accomplishments such as Depository Institutions Amendment (1982)
The Pill (1960)
Overall Accomplishments of Second Wave
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Signed into law by President John F. Kennedy
What was happening to the family makeup during this time?
The Family Changes
1960, 62% of families had a breadwinner dad and a stay at home mom. By mid 1980s, less than 10% (Collins, 2010; p.271-272).
Recent studies on family and divorce indicate....
Women’s income drops 73% (Kimmel, 2010; p. 176).
Men’s income increases by 42% (Kimmel, 2010; p. 176).
Men more involved with children during marriage—less involved after divorce.
Men less involved with children during marriage—more involved after divorce.
Social Class
Why does social class matter when discussing women’s situation during this time?
In 1979 women made 58 cents to the dollar when compared to men’s wages.
Women and Work
What is job segregation?
What does it mean to “have it all”?
Prestige falls for fields as women enter them and with this wages decrease.
Did you know?
Teaching and veterinary medicine were once male dominated fields.
As these fields became “feminized,” the prestige and the wage these professionals were paid decreased.
Women and Childcare
Why is childcare an issue when it comes women and work?
Why was the Comprehensive Child Development Act vetoed by President Nixon in 1972? Why was this veto significant?

Having it all
What does the media have to say?
Claire Huxtuble
Blackboard post due on Monday by the start of class.
Men Helping Out?
Men losing their jobs, closing the pay gap.
Men doing chores and helping with the kids
What was happening to African American families during this time?
Major shows during the time:
The Cosby Show
The Jeffersons
The Role of Race
1980s Cont.
Fashion becomes important.
Managing authority and femininity
Business suits (shoulder pads)
Mini skirts
High heels

1980s The Gaze Continues
Plastic surgery
Growth in eating disorders
Women start going to college in records numbers, surpassing men in 1982.
Women and College
Religious Backlash
“The Moral Majority”
Role of Religion and Sexuality
Women and Democrats
Participation and Homework
In groups of three to four and based on our rubric, determine what you believe everyone deserves for participation. Remember to put your names and your justification for the grade.
Read “1990s—Settling For Less?,” and “The New Millennium.”

“In 1991, two-thirds of married women with children worked” (Collins, 2010; p. 332).

“By 1990, 60% of mothers with children under 5 were working” (Collins, 2010; p. 333).
Women and Work
In 1996, welfare changed.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity and Reconciliation Act.
Welfare/Federal Assistance
From 1996 the percentage of mothers on welfare went from 54% to 67% in 2002.

Minimum wage versus a living wage.
$7.25, 35 hours a week for 52 weeks=$13,195 (before taxes).
200% below the poverty line is “deep poverty” (about $7-8k a year for a family of four)
Assistance Today??
Roe switches sides
People attack abortion clinics and doctors
Women were now being allowed to enlist, yet kept away from combat.

Don’t ask, don’t tell policy.
Sexual Harassment and Politics
1991: Anita Hill and Clarence Thomas
Victim blaming
Electing more women in Congress: 28 to 47
Four women in the Senate (out of one hundred seats)

Clinton and Lewinsky scandal

Celebrities Come Out!
KD Lang comes out in 1992
Ellen Degeneres comes out in 1997
During the 1990s, punk rockers known as riot grrrls started creating anti-patriarchal music. Address issues such as:
Riot Grrls!
Increase in Cost of Living
Racial Stereotypes Persist
Feminization of Poverty
Based on data from 2011:
Children under the age of 18 makeup 35% of the poor population.
41% of the poor are white.
25% of the poor are black.
Female headed households makeup 52% of the poor population
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act (2009)
Extends the time individuals suspicious of unfair pay to file a lawsuit
Work/Family Divide
Cutting yourself off before you get there.
Devaluing of motherhood---unpaid work.
Sexualization of young girls and women.
Toddlers and Tiaras

Ownership of one’s sexuality?
Sexual assault
Women in combat
Women in the military
It’s important to keep in mind that since the third wave is more “global” in scope than the previous two waves, it is also more racially and ethnically diverse.
For example, there is greater inclusion of women from Third World Countries.

Issues regarding Race and Ethnicity
Violence Against Women Act
Repealing of Don’t Ask/Don’t Tell (2011)

Overturning of DOMA (2013)
U.S. does not define “marriage”—left up to the states
State by state legalization of gay marriage or overturning of gay marriage bans
February 6th, 2015
Brief Review
Discuss the beginnings of third wave and current issues.
Brief Review
February 9th, 2015
Brief Review

Discuss Women and Politics in the 21st century
Clinton and Palin
How did Clinton's experiences compare to Palin's when they were running for office?
Sarah and Michelle
How were Palin's and Michelle Obama's experiences different when it came to balancing the work/family divide?
Despite losing....
Even though neither Clinton nor Palin were elected as President or VP, how did their presence as potential leaders affect our understanding of women holding office?
Women and SCOTUS
In what ways have we seen the Supreme Court of the United States affect women as well as be affected by women?
Women who Rock!
Ani DiFranco
Joan Jett
Role of Men within Third Wave
January 26th, 2015
Briefly discuss your Blackboard posts
Discuss "Civil Rights"
Blackboard Posts
Who were some of the first wave feminists you examined in your research?
What did they do and what did they stand for?
In terms of second wave feminists you wrote about, please bring them up as we get to pertinent topics during our discussion.
Brief Review
Starting family later in life (30s).
Having less children.
Pregnancy and work protection (1987).
Women entering more male professions
“Rape Me, Luke!”
Rapists can’t impregnate women?!?!
Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor (1981-2005)
Sexual Assault
Female Empowerment
Zines: self-published magazines on social issues pertaining to women.
The Act has provided $1.6 billion toward investigation and prosecution of violent crimes against women, imposes automatic and mandatory restitution on those convicted, and allows civil redress in cases prosecutors chose to leave un-prosecuted.

The Act also establishes the Office on Violence Against Women within the Department of Justice.
Social class differences when it comes to motherhood and marriage.
Right to privacy
Birth control became available to everyone in 1972.
Brief Review
Women kept out of....
Women kept from...
Last time...
Syllabus quiz and quiz on first wave and feminism due by class time on 9/5/18
Relationship between race and sexuality?
In "Woman and the New Race," what does Sanger argue?
"Daughters in Boxes" and "The Yellow Wallpaper"
"The Damnation of Women"
"Three Guineas"
What does Woolf argue in "Three Guineas"?
The Reality
1870- 5 million Blacks, 8.6 million Whites
1910- 8.7 million Blacks, 20.5 million Whites (Gordon; p. 100)
The Moral Property of Women
(2002) by Linda Gordon.
"Standing on the ground of common sense and the constitution of the human mind, I deny that anyone knows, or can know, the nature of the two sexes, as long as they have only been seen in their present relation to one another"
--John Stuart Mill, 1869,
The Subjection of Women
, p. 29.
What does she argue in this?
What rights does she want for women?
How would individuals and society benefit?
What does this mirror? Why is this significant?
"The Subjection of Women"
What argument does John Stuart Mill make here?
What are your thoughts on his framing of women as slaves?
What are your thoughts on Toshiko's metaphor of the "box" in this chapter?
What do you think the main character in "The Yellow Wallpaper" is dealing with?
What does Du Bois mean by "in this veiled world of mine"?
What point does he make about beauty?
What kind of backlash does Sanger suggest may happen?
How are middle class women "weaker than the women of the working class"?
What is significant about money for Woolf?
Read: The Essential Feminist Reader “A Black Feminist Statement,” and “The Master’s Tools will Never Dismantle the Master’s House.”
"The Second Sex"
This is written in France and before second wave in the U.S. takes hold.
According to De Beauvior, why don't women organize? What keeps them from organizing against their oppressors?
"Women and the New Race," "Three Guineas," "The Second Sex," and "The Feminine Mystique" and watch
Awakening Part One
--documentary on Blackboard.
Dred Scott SCOTUS ruling 1857
Naturalization Act of 1790= citizens for whites only.
"women attending college in comparison with men dropped from 47 % in 1920 to 35% in 1958" (p. 271).
“Daughter’s in Boxes,” “The Yellow Wallpaper,” and “The Damnation of Women”

Watch Awakening Part One to be discussed on 8/31/18
Today's Outline
Discussion topics:
-Women and education
-Reconstruction and Race Relations
-Women get the vote!
Who is this "He" Stanton refers to in this?
What is Du Bois' main argument in this chapter?
If you haven't watched Awakening Part One yet, do so--we will discuss it as we discuss the transition from first to second wave.
Full transcript