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FAMILY AND WOMEN UNDER STALIN'S RULE
Transcript of FAMILY AND WOMEN UNDER STALIN'S RULE
Stalin’s rule of the Soviet Union began 1928, when, after a long struggle, he succeeded Vladimir Lenin.
Stalin’s rule ended exactly 25 years later with his death in early 1953.
During this period "Stalinist System" emerged
・ Communist Party controlled decisions having to do with political appointments, economic policy, cultural activities, and foreign relations;
・ a personal dictatorship in which loyalty to a single leader, Stalin
・ a pervasive, restrictive system of police controls, forced labor, and violent repression
・ a system of forced modernization
・ a foreign policy that sought to protect Soviet borders and Communist ideology
*Bolsheviks implemented emancipation from all bonds, despite the one with the Patry
*Promoting the State as 'one big family'
*People didn’t trust one another in Soviet Russia. They all had to be obedient of the state in 100% and were indoctrinized to value the good of the country over any other. Family was no different.
*1. Weakening family bonds
*2. Strenghtening family bonds again
1917-1945 - FOUR GREAT EDICTS
-Religious marriages replaced with civil marriages - power to the State
-Divorces - either the man or woman in a married couple to pursue divorce and win.
-Unwed mothers received special protection
-All children, whether legitimate or illegitimate, were given equal rights before the law
-Women were granted sexual equality under matrimonial law
-Inheritance of property was abolished
- FIRST EDICT - New legal definitions of family structure, martial and parental relationships, sexual behavior, women's position
1920 - Abortion legalized
- SECOND EDICT - continuation of First Edict
His story, dated to 1932, is that of a 13-year-old boy who denounced his father to the authorities and was in turn killed by his family
- THIRD EDICT - Retiurn to more traditional model of family and rights and obligations of its members.
Abotion made illegal.
- Tax on childlessness
- FOURTH EDICT - continuation of Third Edict
According to the
"Principles of Legislation on Marriage and the Family of the USSR and the Union Republics", parents are "to raise their children in the spirit of the Moral Code of the Builder of Communism, to attend to their physical development and their instruction in and preparation for socially useful activity."
*Weakening family ties + devastation and dislocation caused by the Civil War (1918–21) =
=7 million homeless children.
*Government failing to fulfill people's demands to restore family's strenght
*Mistrust between people and government
*Destruction of family, colectivisation of it, making all state owned
*Soviet socialism= a critique of the conventional family and its household economy
*Vladimir lenin in 1919
"it is necessary to be socialized and for women to participate in common productive labor. Then woman will be the equal of man."
*Women had almost no rights before October Revolution
*“Emancipation” of women was possible only in a socialist system:
-Women were no longer treated as a kind of domestic property
-Educational and employment opportunities were offered to men and women equally
-Women’s political involvement was actively encouraged.
Code on Marriage, the Family, and Guardianship was ratified by the Central Executive Committee
The constitution declares the principle of equality of the sexes, but it does not contain a clear prohibition of sex-based discrimination
Generous maternity leave was legally required
National network of child-care centers was established
'Emancipation' of women
Abortion was legalized (the Soviet Union the first country to do so )
Abortion was banned again untill 1955
- Tax on childlessness
Attempts to create perfect Bolshevik woman fail
The constitution declared the principle of equality of the sexes, but it does not contain a clear prohibition of sex-based discrimination.
Women were still domestic leaders under Stalin's regime
Bolsheviks originally wanted to reinvent the family, making more of a communal neighborhood environment. Eventually, this changed and more traditional family roles returned.
Collectivisation violating women - the householders
More women entered the labor force but they remained concentrated in certain fields, such as medicine, education, and domestic services, which were lower paying
Propaganda claimed, accurately, that more women sat in the Supreme Soviet than in most democratic countries' legislative bodies combined,
Only three women in Politburo ( Yekaterina Furtseva, Yelena Stasova(who was later succeded by furtseva) and Galina Semyonova)
To this day, the scope for free choice of occupation or type of work is still restricted for women in the Russia Federation, despite a number of remarks issued by the UN on the topic.
WOMEN IN MILITARY
Germany attacked the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 - thousands of women who volunteered were turned away.
Before the severe manpower shortages of 1942, women were prohibited from serving in combat positions. Soviet propaganda put women on the home front
After Union's defeat women are more welcome, but mostly to medical units
800,000 women in the Soviet Armed Forces during WW2
89 of which have later on recieved the soviet union highest award, the Hero of Soviet Union
Soviet propaganda encouraged women to undertake paramilitary civil defense training
Magazines for proletariat women, such as Rabotnitsa, called upon readers to take up arms like other brave female soldiers - Selective system of the State
*The only female member of Lenin's Central Committee
*First female ambassador
*First woman elected to Party's Central Committee *People's Commisar for Public Welfare (after Oct. Rv.)
*Russian revolutionary, writer,
*Educator and Secretary of the Bolshevik Fraction
*Wife and advisor to V.I. Lenin.
*Secretary to the Board of Iskra
beginning in 1901.
*In 1917, Inessa Armand, Clara Zetkin, and N. K. Krupskaya pressured Russia officials to sanction International Women's Day.
THE WOMEN'S DAY
the festival of Women’s Day, which was adopted in 1913 by the Bolsheviks. The celebration of this festival shaped the ideal Soviet woman as a strong figure.
* Collective author, Rosenzweig Centre for History and New Media, 2015 http://chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/sources.php?function=find&area=russia
*Blunden, Andy, "Krupskaya", accessed on: https://www.marxists.org/archive/krupskaya/
* Blunden, Andy, "Alexandra Kollontai" accessed on: https://www.marxists.org/archive/kollonta/
*Kamynsky, Lauren, NYU, 2011
accessed on: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8195196
PRAVDA ABOUT WOMEN
"On the Path to a Great Emancipation," March 8, 1929. :
“Today is international communist women’s day, the international day for working women”
“Working women in capitalist countries. Capitalist “democracy” has not and cannot give freedom to working and laboring women. "
“Only we in the Soviet Union have at hand all of the preconditions and foundations for the complete emancipation of working women. “
“She stands in the most advanced ranks of our working collective in the present-day glorious and productive period of socialist construction. In the factory workshop and at the controls of the state ships, in the cooperatives and at the shooting range, in the nursery school and at the thundering machinery, everywhere the tractors of our increasingly strong state farms and collective farms are plowing the virgin soil of our Soviet land, in the workers’ faculties and in courses for the red sisterhood where the proletariat struggles relentlessly to master science, and everywhere that life is in full swing and the anthills of labor are humming—in none of these places have the working women of the Soviet Union been forced into last place.
“Needless to say, without the conscious and active participation of the working woman we will not fulfill the tasks defined by Lenin and by the entire development of the October revolution. “
“We will not achieve the rapid tempo of socialist industrialization if the woman worker turns out to be passive. “
“Recruitment of the best women into the Party and the courageous and steadfast advancement into the soviets, management and cooperative duties, and the governing apparatus—these measures will ensure the actual emancipation of women “
“And not only today, on the red holiday of March 8, should we take note of and strongly emphasize the great challenges facing the women’s proletarian movement. “