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Head Injuries

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Ubah Ahmed

on 1 October 2014

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Transcript of Head Injuries

Brain Damage
What is it

How Does It Occur
What Roles Does The Brain Play
What Causes It
Internal Bleeding
What Is It
The Brain: How Much Is Too Much?
The brain is the control center for movement, sleep, hunger, thirst, and virtually every other vital activity necessary to survive. It is connected to all the main organs in the body
The human brain is ultimately responsible for all thought and movement that the body produces. This allows humans to successfully interact with their environment, by communicating with others and interacting with inanimate objects near their position. If the brain is not functioning properly, the ability to move, generate accurate sensory information or speak and understand language can be damaged as well.
The brain is made up of nerve cells which interact with the rest of the body through the spinal cord and nervous system. These cells relate information back to specific centers of the brain where it can be processed and an appropriate reaction can be generated.
Several chemicals are also located in the brain, which help the body maintain homeostasis, or a sense of overall comfort and calm as its basic needs are met. Keeping these chemicals balanced and the nerve cells firing properly are essential to healthy brain function.
Brain damage is an injury that causes the destruction or deterioration of brain cells.
The severity of brain damage can vary with the type of brain injury. A mild brain injury may be temporary. It causes headaches, confusion, memory problems, and nausea. In a moderate brain injury, symptoms can last longer and be more pronounced.
A TBI can be mild or severe. A severe TBI can do enough damage to knock you unconscious for a longer period of time. It can even lead to a coma or death.
With a severe brain injury, the person may suffer life-changing problems. He or she will have cognitive, behavioral, and physical disabilities.
The extent and effect of brain damage is determined by a MRI or CT scan and physiological assessments. Doctors stabilize the patient to avoid further injury, ensure that the brain is receiving enough blood and oxygen, and ensure that blood pressure is controlled.
Most patients benefit from rehabilitation to help in long-term recovery

In a Concussion, after an injury, there are functional changes that occur in how the brain works but no structural damage can be seen on standard imaging tests like CT scan.
The brain floats in cerebrospinal fluid and is encased in the skull. These protections allow it to withstand many of the minor injuries that occur in day-to-day life. However, if there is sufficient force to cause the brain to bounce against the rigid bones of the skull, then there is potential for injury.
A concussion is caused by a jolt that shakes your brain back and forth inside your skull. Any hard hit to the head or body -- whether it's from a football tackle or a car accident -- can lead to a concussion. Although a concussion is considered a mild brain injury, it can leave lasting damage if you don't rest long enough to let your brain fully heal afterward.
Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, can be defined as a short-lived loss of brain function due to head trauma that resolves spontaneously. With concussion, function may be interrupted but there is no structural damage to the brain.
It is the acceleration and deceleration of the brain against the inside of the skull that can cause the brain to be irritated and interrupt its function.
The acceleration can come from a direct blow to the head or face, or from other body trauma that causes the head to shake. While temporary loss of consciousness due to injury means that a concussion has taken place, most concussions occur without the patient being knocked out.
The signs and symptoms of concussion may be obvious or very subtle. Most patients are unaware that they have sustained a concussion and may not connect their symptoms with a head injury. This is especially true when symptoms develop hours after the initial injury and those events may have been forgotten.
Being knocked out or having a seizure after a head injury are not common and may be very dramatic but these two symptoms do not predict the severity of the concussion.
Difficulty concentrating or feeling “foggy”
Slower reaction times
Dizziness, lightheadedness
Difficulty with bright lights or loud sounds
Changes in sleep patterns, either insomnia or sleeping more
In order for the memory of a human to function, it requires many parts of the brain, but if certain parts of the brain are effected or damaged, either by injuries or by certain diseases, it may interfere with the memories stored within the brain.
Amnesia is caused from damage to the parts of the brain that form the limbic system, which basically controls your memory and emotions. These structures include one that lies deep down the center of the brain called the thalamus, and the hippocampus formations, which are located within the temporal lobes of your brain.
Many types of amnesia are associated with damage in the hippocampus areas, which are used for storing and retrieving memories. If there is blockage in its path way where info processes, or if that specific part of the brain is missing or damaged, the brain may not be able to retrieve old memories or even form new ones.

Anterograde :
Patient cannot recall recent information, but can remember data or events that happened before the injury.(usually caused by brain damage from a blow to the head)

Patient cannot remember events that occurred before the incident, but can normally retain recent information.

The loss of memory due to the occurrence of a traumatic incident (e.g. car accident). Patients may experience loss of consciousness, or even end up in a coma. Such cases continue temporarily, depending on the severity of the injury.

Transit global:
Temporary loss of all memories, those from the past and the most recent.

Hysterical (fugue):
patients with this type of amnesia not only forget their past, but their identity as well. In most cases, the memory of the patient may slowly or suddenly come back within a few days, however, the memory of the shocking event may never come back completely.
People who encounter Amnesia, often have problems with short term memory, and cannot recall recent memories. Most remote or deeply ingrained memories (e.g. childhood) may be retained in the brain.
Memory loss doesn't effect a person's intelligence, judgment, attentively, or personality, for amnesia differs from dementia. Dementia is the result of memory loss, but also leads to other problems effecting the person's ability to carry out daily activities.
In most cases, amnesia is only temporarily, may last for a few seconds, minutes, or hours, but the duration can also exceed depending on the severity of the cause. Amnesia may continue for weeks or even months, for it is very rare for a person to experience permanent amnesia.
People with amnesia often find it hard to imagine the future, because the recollections of our past are linked to the construction of our future. It had been proven by researchers in Washington University, that both processes of remembering the past and imagining the future go though patterns within the same network of brain regions.
Amnesia caused by brain damage, is referred to as "neurological amnesia", and some possible reasons for this outcome include:

Tumors within the brain
• Brain inflammation
• Seizures
• Certain medications
• Lack of adequate oxygen
• Stroke
• False recollections (genuine memories misplaced in time)
Head injuries that cause concussion, result in confusion and loss of memory, but they usually don't cause severe amnesia. Scientists say that "amnesia is an important indicator of concussion"
Skull Fracture
What Is It
A skull fracture is any break in the cranial bone, also known as the skull. an impact or a blow to the head that is strong enough to break the bone. The fracture may be accompanied by injury to the brain, but that is not always the case.
• Swelling
• Bleeding
• pain around the affected area
• Bruises on face
• Nasal bleeding and ear bleeding

A skull fracture can occur without the brain being injured. It is a break in the bone of the cranium or skull.
Simple skull fracture
- Break in skull without damage to skin
Linear fracture-
a fracture that extends parallel to the long axis of a bone but does not displace the bone tissue
Compound fracture-
takes place in the floor of the skull region around the eyes, ears, nose, or back, near the spine.
Depressed skull fracture-
fracture causes skull to extend into brain
Penetrating skull fracture-
caused by gun shot wounds or missiles.
Wearing the appropriate head gear when engaging in particular sports such as biking, football, rock climbing.

In some cases, medication to control the pain is sufficient and the skull will heal itself. However, in more severe cases, surgery will be required to correct the depression of the skull. MRIs are used to determine the kind of fracture and to properly diagnose it. A CT or CAT also known as a computed tomography scan produces an exact three dimensional image.
Prevention/treatment of skull fractures
Head injury may result into internal bleeding or also referred to as internal haemorrhage. This means that there is blood loss from the vascular or circulatory system.
This is a serious medical emergency which should be taken care of immediately. The severity of the injury depends on two factors, one: the rate of blood loss, and two: the area where its taking place.
Internal bleeding can be caused by any significant physical injury. There are two types of trauma and any of them can cause internal haemorrhage.
1) Blunt trauma when the body collides with something usually at a high speed. The blood vessels are torn or crushed by either shear force or the blunt object itself. ex- car accident, physical assault

2) Penetrating trauma when a penetrating object forcefully enters the body and tears blood vessels. ex- gunshot, stabbing

In this scenario blunt trauma was the cause of internal bleeding. His head hit the stadium borders at a high speed which caused internal bleeding.
When internal bleeding takes place it is up to the doctor to decide what to do. There are two options:
if the bleeding as slowed down or isn't as serious as before, then go for the observation method.

if it's really serious and there is too much blood loss, then a surgery is recommended with blood drips given.
For a head trauma related head injury the surgery is called Craniotomy. This means that the surgeon may create a hole in the skull to relive the pressure and reducing further injury to the brain.
Although it is rare, a well known case of permanent amnesia, perhaps the worst case recorded, happened to a British musician named Clive Wearing. This musician suffered brain damage as a result of an "encephalitis" virus in 1985. The damage he encountered was to an area where it is required for his brain to transfer memories from "working" to "long term" memories, therefore his memory was limited to short-term memory of between 7-30 seconds. However, Clive Wearing did not lose his talent in playing the piano and conducting choir, despite his memories being effected, because his "procedural" memory (unconscious memory of skills) was not damaged by the virus.
That Bring Us Back To The Main Question........
What Happened To Sam Kapanen?
What Injury Did He Sustain?
Internal Bleeding
Skull Fracture
Was It......
Done By:
Ubah Ahmed

Hamna Imtiaz

Laaiba Akmal
Shifaa Alwan
A wide range of things can cause brain injury which are caused by both external and internal factors. A common category with the most number of injuries is Traumatic Brain Injury following physical pain or head injury from an external source. TBI causes movement of the brain inside the skull or skull damage itself. This in turn damages the brain.
Your brain is well protected from most damage. It sits inside a hard, bony skull. Layers of membranes and fluid provide even more padding. But even with all of this natural protection, the brain can still get injured. And damage to it can affect everything you do, from thinking to moving.
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