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history of therapeutic exercis
Transcript of history of therapeutic exercis
came from the Taoists priests in China
the writings describe a type of exercise called "Cong Fu"
therapeutic exercise was introduced as a physical education course
Hippocrates (Father of Medicine) recognized the importance of muscle strengthening using exercise.
First physician to recommend therapeutic ex. to his patients
Ancient Romans, 180 BC
adopted a form of therapeutic exercise called Gymnastics.
Roman gladiators and athletes used gymnastics in roman arenas and in the popular exhibitions of athletes
Ancient Hindus also used certain body positioning as exercise trying to cure chronic rheumatism
electrical stimulation was first introduced in the United States as a therapeutic modality. It is also used in France, England and Germany
history of therapeutic exercise
by Abigail Malana
Researchers found evidences that the application of heat, cold, water, massage, sunlight and EXERCISE were often used to decrease physical illnesses during PREHISTORIC TIMES
an exercise consisted of body positioning and breathing routines
had very little motion and were unrelated to modern concepts of exercise
Ancient Greece, 500 BC
Herodicus (Greek Physician) wrote Ars Gymnastica or "The Art of Gymnastics"
he believed that he was able to treat febrile (fever) conditions using wrestling, walking and massage
in his time Greeks performed exercise like; wrestling, walking, using halters (dumbbells), riding a horse
DID YOU KNOW...
2ND Century AD
Galen (Physician of Ancient Rome) believed that moderate exercises strengthened the body, increased body temperature, allowed pores of the skin to open and improved person's spiritual being
After Middle Ages
"Libro del Exercisio" first printed book on exercise that is published in Spain by Cristobal Mendez
more books about exercise were published and promoted moderate exercise to "give the body lightness and vigor and to clean the muscle and ligaments of their waste"
massage, hydrotherapy and exercise were first introduced
Nicolas Andry (prof. at Medical Faculty in Paris) first scientist to relate the mov't created by exercise to the muskuloskeletal system
he believed that exercise are able to cure many infirmities
he also suggested that fencing can contribute to develop all muscle especially the muscles of the arms and legs
a suspended rocking horse, an exercise equipment was introduced that had the same therapeutic benefit as the living horse
Per Henrik Ling's therapeutic exercise known as Swedish exercise/Swedish gymnastics, or Swedish mov't spread throughout Europe with the help of Sweden's King Charles XIII
George Taylor (Medical director of Remedial Hygienic Institute in NY) introduced Ling's Swedish exercise in America and became popular in schools for physical education classes.
Ling's Swedish Exercise
consist of active and passive mov't
were also used to treat chronic disease conditions
it contributed to the development of Swedish massage as a therapeutic activity
Gustav Zander (Swedish Physician) developed 71 different types of apparatus for active, passive and assistive exercise
the American Electro - therapeutic Association was formed
members included those who promoted specialized training in electrotherapy, electrotherapeutic research, and the used of eletrotherapeutic equipments.
Nikola Tesla introduced diathermy as a electrotherapeutic modality.
World War I (1917), the Reconstruction Aides (who began Physical Therapy in US) used Zander's machines and Ling's Swedish mov't for rehabilitation of disabled soldiers.
Herman Kabat (neurophysiologist) discovered neurological concepts of stretch reflex, flexion reflex, and tonic neck reflex to develop neurological exercise called "proprioceptive facilitation."
Robert Lovett's (1916) concept that muscle training was the most important early therapeutic measure for polio treatment.
Wilhelmine G. Wright (1926) developed the training technique of ambulation with crunches for patients who had paraplegia or paralysis caused by polio and also introduced the manual muscle testing procedure for physical therapy
Joel E. Goldthwait's discovered that backaches were due to faulty postures and habits.
Goldthwait's and his colleagues wrote the book Essentials on body Mechanisms in 1934
Paul C. Williams (1953) proposed a series of postural exercises to strengthen the spine flexors and extensors and to relieve back pain, known as Williams' exercises
by 1947, many convalescent centers were build in the US. Patients were prescribed convalescent exercise or reconditioning exercise to counteract the effect and abuse of bed rest. Patients performed exercise in groups according to their conditions.
1967, Cybex I Dynamometer was introduced based on the concept of isokinetic exercise by Hislop and Perrine. They found out that muscular performance can be reduced to the physical parameters of force, work, power, and endurance.
also during this time, biofeedback was introduced
In 1934, Ernest A. Codman (Boston surgeon) introduced shoulder exercise (Codman pendulum exercise)
findings that exercises could be helpful after surgery
In 1945, Progressive Resistive Exercise (PRE) was first introduced by Thomas DeLorme (Alabama Physician). He found out that by increasing the resistance applied to the exercising muscle, quadriceps muscle restored rapidly.
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