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personality type and hardiness
Transcript of personality type and hardiness
Other characteristics include insecurity about status and a need to be admired by their peers in order to feel good about themselves
Kobasa argued that hardy individuals experience less stress than other people & as a result are healthier & less inclined to suffer from various physical illnesses.
Hardiness may also have a buffering effect – making individuals more resistant to stress.
Use the textbook to complete summaries of the studies on pg 23 of your booklet
Kobasa argued that people differ in their ability to cope with stressors. She used the term hardiness to describe a cluster of traits possessed by those people best able to cope with stress.
‘Hardy’ individuals possess the 3 Cs:
Commitment – committed to what they are doing
Challenge – stressors seen as enjoyable challenges to be mastered, leading to self-improvement
Control – feels they have control over their life
Does personality affect stress level?
Psychologists refer to 2 broad 'types' of personality, describing shared characteristics that are common between people.
Most research uses type A participants
TWO 'TYPES' OF PERSONALITY
May involve the same degree of ambition, but are more steadied by it.
Much more self-confident, relaxed and easy-going
Not driven to achieve perfection and much less hostile.
Friedman & Rosenman (1974)
To find evidence for the role of non-biological factors in CHD, particularly the role of individual differences in the way men dealt with stressful situations
1960-61. 3000 American men, aged 39-59 were followed for 8 years. All were well at the start of the study.
The way in which the men dealt with stressful situations was assessed in two ways:
A structured interview, which involved predetermined, open-ended questions
A pencil and paper self-assessment test, consisting of several multiple choice questions
Based on these measures the men were classified as displaying Type A or Type B behaviour
Type A men more likely to develop CHD than Type B men.
After taking risk factors into account (eg age, smoking, family history etc) they were still twice as likely to suffer from heart attacks
Personality can make a person more likely to develop CHD, even with other more traditional factors controlled for. Therefore personality can be regarded as a risk factor.
This shows that psychological factors can have biological effects (mind-body interaction)
Stressors aren’t necessarily harmful in themselves; its how people perceive and react to them that’s potentially dangerous for health.
Substantial study – sample and longitudinal
Findings replicated – Miller et al. (1996) reviewed several studies and confirmed results
Didn’t account for all aspects of lifestyle so hardiness for example could account for differences
Findings are only relative
Type A personality is too broad and perhaps specific traits should be researched instead (eg Hayes pg 22)