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Signals (ligands) bind with receptors

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by

Elizabeth Tomlin

on 14 August 2014

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Transcript of Signals (ligands) bind with receptors

Signals (ligands) bind with receptors and change the activity of a cell
Agonists bind with receptors and have the same effect as the primary ligand, or might even increase activity more than the primary ligand
Antagonists bind with receptors and do not cause a cellular response. They "block" the receptor so the primary ligand cannot bind
Signals can act locally
or over distance

Local signals can be fat-soluble
or water soluble too, but there is no special terminology

Local signals
Autocrine
Paracrine
Receptor is on the cell that
produced the signal
Signal binds with receptor on nearby cell.
Passes only through ISF
Long distance signals
Neural signals
Delivered by neurons
Endocrine signals
=hormones
Travel through blood before binding with receptor
Hormones can be fat-soluble or water soluble
Steroids are fat-soluble
hormones
(hydrophobic, lipophilic)
Non-steroids are water-
soluble hormones
(lipophobic, hydrophilic)
Examples
Estradiol (an estrogen)
Testosterone (an androgen)
Progesterone (a progestin)
Cortisol (a glucocorticoid)
Aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid)
Transport in blood
Steroids need a protein carrier because they are not water soluble. These are called steroid-binding globulins.
Transduction mechanism
Location of the receptor
The receptor is located in the cytosol or nucleus. Steroids enter the cell by simple diffusion
Steroids activate gene expression
Examples
Diverse group of chemicals which include:

Catecholamines eg. epinephrine
Proteins eg. insulin, antidiuretic hormone
Insulin
Transport in blood
Travel dissolved in blood - may need carrier protein for protection from enzymes
Location of Receptor
Receptors are located on the plasma membrane - hormone does NOT enter the cell
Transduction
mechanisms
Diverse:
1. Activate enzyme


2. Activate 2nd messenger system


3. Open or close an ion channel
Full transcript