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第二世紀教會的信仰生活

教會歷史一:第二課
by

John Chan

on 16 October 2014

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Transcript of 第二世紀教會的信仰生活

十二使徒遺訓
Didache
回顧
基督教早期文獻選集
《革利免一書》
Clement of Rome
早期教會的信仰生活
黑馬牧人書
The Shepherd of Hermas
教會迫害
大公教會
catholic church
第二世紀教會的信仰生活
______________________________________________

50
耶路撒冷會議
64
尼祿迫害
70
聖殿被毀
使徒相繼死去
70s-90s
原基督教時期(使徒時期)
100
早期教會歷史
historical analysis hermeneutics
耶穌基督昇天,門徒傳福音建立教會,聖靈默示寫成聖經,教會歷史開始。講完。
150
200
十二使徒遺訓
Didache
革利免一書
First Epistle of Clement
黑馬牧人書
The Shepherd of Hermas
游斯丁
Justin Martyr
c. 100 – 165 AD
特土良
Tertullian
c. 160 – 220 AD
愛任鈕
Irenaeus
c. 130 – 202 AD
坡旅甲
Polycarp
AD 69– 155-160
伊格那修
Ignatius
 35 or 50 – 98 to 117
希波律陀
Hippolytus of Rome
170–235
google 基督教早期文獻選集
彼得按立的承繼人
羅馬主教
腓立比書4:3(俄利根)
生平:一個謎
我也求你這真實同負一軛的,幫助這兩個女人,因為她們在福音上曾與我一同勞苦;還有革利免,並其餘和我一同做工的,他們的名字都在生命冊上。(腓4:3)
St. Clement Basilica
https://www.google.com/maps/place/basilica+of+san+clemente/@41.889335,12.497576,15z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x0:0x97e138e66d21b151?sa=X&ei=ljAhVKeQCNPs8AW-_IDADg&ved=0CJwBEPwSMBE
一手資料研究
革利免一書
10min
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04012c.htm
The New Testament he never quotes verbally. Sayings of Christ are now and then given, but not in the words of the Gospels. It cannot be proved, therefore, that he used any one of the Synoptic Gospels.
He mentions St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, and appears to imply a second. He knows Romans and Titus, and apparently cites several other of St. Paul's Epistles.
Clement uses the Old Testament affirmation "The Lord liveth", substituting the Trinity thus: "As God liveth, and the Lord Jesus Christ liveth and the Holy Spirit — the faith and hope of the elect, so surely he that performeth", etc. (58).
There is absolutely no mention of a bishop at Corinth, and the ecclesiastical authorities there are always spoken of in the plural.
R. Sohm thinks there was as yet no bishop at Corinth when Clement wrote (so Michiels and many other Catholic writers;
Lightfoot leaves the question open), but that a bishop must have been appointed in consequence of the letter; he thinks that Rome was the origin of all ecclesiastical institutions and laws (Kirchenrecht 189)
;
Harnack in 1897 (Chronol., I) upheld the paradox that the Church of Rome was so conservative as to be governed by presbyters until Anicetus
5-7; 13; 23-24; 58-61
一手資料研究
十二使徒遺訓
10min
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04779a.htm
生命之路(1-4)
死亡之路(5)
禮儀(7-10)
教會規條(11-15)
終末(16)
Διδαχὴ κυρίου διὰ τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τοῖς ἔθνεσιν.
在優西比烏 Historia Ecclesiastica III, 25.
Didache in the manuscript discovered in 1873. The first Greek edition is published in 1883.
被納入爲新約正典
猶太文化濃烈
A Latin fragment of the Two Ways was published in 1723 by PEZ in Thesaurus Anecdotorum, IV.
Greek, Latin, Coptics, Ethiopic, Georgian
Unacknowledged citations are very common, if less certain. The "Two Ways" appears in Barnabas, cc. xviii-xx, sometimes word for word, sometimes added to, dislocated, or abridged, and Barn., iv, 9 is from Didache, xvi, 2-3, or vice versa. Hermas, Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen seem to use the work, and so in the West do Optatus and the "Gesta apud Zenophilum". The Didascalia Apostolorum are founded upon the Didache. The Apostolic church ordinance has used a part, the Apostolic Constitutions have embodied the Didascalia. There are echoes in Justin, Tatian, Theophilus, Cyprian, and Lactantius.
Two Ways
Golden Rule
Baptism
Eucharist
Ev. Matthew vs Didache
http://www.ccel.org/l/lake/fathers/didache.htm
5 Visions
12 Mandate
10 Similitude
The Woman Church
Shepherd
Metanoia
Dipsychia
Pneumatology
Two Ways
Christology
(1)我說:“先生,我還要繼續求教。”他說:“請說罷。”我說:“先生,我曾從某些教師聽聞過,當我們走下水,我們過去的罪蒙洗淨,過了這一次之後,再沒有第二次可悔罪了。”
(2)他對我說:“你聽過得不錯,正是如此。因為,既蒙赦罪的人,應該不再犯罪,而純潔生存。
(3)但你既欲確切尋知一切,我將更對你說明此事,而也對那些將來要信主或已經信了主的人給予犯罪的把柄。因為那些現在信或將來要信的人,他們沒有悔罪之可言。只有信主,以前的罪得蒙赦免。
(4)所以,主指定了悔罪特為那些被稱作在這些日子以前的人,因為主知道人心,預先知道萬事,祂早知人的軟弱和魔鬼的奸狡,魔鬼要想謀害上帝的僕人,想對他們播弄擺布。
(5)因此慈悲的主,垂憫祂的受造蒼生,設立了這個悔罪辦法,並派我加以管理。”
(6)他繼續說:“但我告訴你,在那個偉大而神聖的召喚之後,假如人再給魔鬼誘惑而陷於罪,他可有一次的悔罪:要是他屢犯屢悔,屢悔屢犯,這種人是更不中用,他必無法存活。”
(7)我對他說:“我既從你正確聽了這些事,就贏得了生命,因為我明白了若是我於蒙赦過去諸罪之上不再加犯,我必將得救。”他說:“是的,你必將得救,而一切這樣的人,也必如此。”(Man.4.3.1-7)
(1)弟兄們,當我睡眠中,有一極美貌的青年顯示了給我,他這樣說:“你以為那曾交給你書的那位古昔婦人是誰呀?”我說,“是西比喇”。他說:“你錯了,她不是西比喇”。我問:“那末,她是誰呀?”他答說:“是聖教會”。我又問他:“那末,為何長得那麼老呀?”他說:“因為她是萬物中首先生出的,因此而已這麼老;世界為她之故而建立了的”
(2)以後我又在我家中見一異象。那位古老婦人又來到了,問我是否已把那書交給長老們。我說,還沒有。她說:“那好的。因為我尚有話要加進去。所以,到了我把那些話語加入了以後,你便要把它們告知所有蒙選者。
(3)那麼,你應當寫出那本小書,將一本送給革利免,另一本給革拉布德。以後革利免必要將這書送到外埠各城市,因為那是他的本務;而革拉布德則必勉勵一班寡婦孤兒。至於在本城,你必要自己誦讀,並和那些管理教會的長老們同讀。” (Vis. 2.4.1)
(1)當我家居坐在床上禱告的時候,忽有一位滿面榮光的人走進來,他作一牧人的裝束,披了一件白羊皮袍,肩上掛著一袋,手上拿有一物。他向我問安,我也回禮。
(2)他在我身旁坐下,對我說:“我是由高級天使差遣來陪伴你晚年的。”
(3)我以為他是來試探我的,故對他說:“是嗎,你是誰呀?因為我知道我交給誰。”他對我說:“你不認識我嗎?”我說:“不識”。他說:“我是收受你的牧人。”
(4)當他說話中的時候,他變了面色,我認識他是我被交給的人;我立刻心情混亂,發生恐懼,繼以悲哀,因為我已這麼鄙陋愚蠢地回答了他。
(5)但他對我說:“不要混亂自擾,卻要堅強聽我所要吩咐你的一束命令,因為我是受差遣來再給你表明那些你從前已看見過的事,因為它們是有益於你的若干要點。首先,你要把我的命令和喻言寫下來;其餘的,我告訴你時,你也要寫下。我之所以吩咐你先把命令和喻言寫下來之故,是為了你可以立刻把它們念出來,而能持守它們。”
(6)於是我在他吩咐我的時候,寫下那些命令和喻言。
(7)所以,如果你們聽從和持守它們,純心一意實踐它們,你們必從主領受祂所應許給你們的,反之,倘若你們在聽從它們之後不為悔改,而繼續罪上加罪,你們必要從主領得相反的惡果。以上是牧人吩咐我這樣寫下的,因他是悔改的天使。(Vis. 5.2)
(4)這些話是主命令我顯示給你,當你把這些話告訴了他們之後,他們從前犯了的一切罪孽,必將蒙赦恕,而眾聖徒所犯迄至今日的罪過,也必將得赦免,要是他們全心悔改,而再不三心兩意的話。
(5)因為主曾藉祂的榮耀向祂的蒙揀選者發過誓,假如從今天規定的日子起,他們仍再犯罪,他們便必不得救;為了義人的悔罪是有一個終期的,所有聖徒,悔罪的日期是已完成了的,但對於異端派,悔罪開放直至末日。(Vis.2.2.4-5)
(1)他又對我說:“你要免除三心兩意,切不可在任何事上,一邊請求上帝,一邊自己主張。如果我這樣大大衝犯著主,我怎能求告祂而蒙給與呢?(2)千萬勿抱這種想頭,‘要全心向主’(珥二12),而對祂求告,勿懷二心,則你必將知道祂的大慈大悲,而祂不會讓你空手,卻必成全你靈魂的呼籲。(3)因為上帝不是像那些懷有惡意的人,卻對祂的受造物皆具憐憫。(4)所以你要從這世上的一切虛榮,和上面所說過的罪全心淨潔,單只求教於主,你必將領受一切,凡你所提出的呼求,決無不應,只要你能虔誠求懇而不狐疑的話。(5)但若你心中一有狐疑,你所求的必無所得。因為那些對上帝猶豫疑惑的人,是三心兩意,因而他們所有請求決無得到之理。(6)但凡在信仰上完全的人,就可求告萬事,‘信靠主’(詩二12),並可領得所求的,因為他們的求告毫不置疑,絕無三心兩意。凡屬三心兩意之徒,除非悔改,必難得救。(7)所以務要清淨你心,不可三心兩意,卻抱純全的信仰,因為它是強有力的;又要信上帝,你必得到凡所作的請求。倘若你向主有所求請,而遲遲其來,你亦切勿因此而三心兩意,因為在每一個場合上,由於某些你所不知的試探或罪犯,你才得到求請這麼遲的,(8)所以,萬勿將你靈魂的需求停止禱告,你總必得到它。但如你發生厭倦,而生狐疑,求告不專心,你要怪你自己,勿怪祂,因祂終給你的。(9)考查這種三心兩意,因它是邪惡而愚蠢的,能將許多人的信心拔去,甚至一些忠誠而堅固的信徒。因為這種三心兩意是魔鬼的女兒,而對上帝的僕人干犯許多邪惡。(10)所以,要鄙棄三心兩意,而在一切行動上控制它,樹立那堅強而有能力的信心。因為信心應許萬事,並成全萬事。然猶豫不定,便無充足的信心,而一切工作不致成功。”(11)他又說:“你明白,信心是從上頭來的,從主而來,具有偉大能力;反之,猶豫不定卻是地上的俗靈,來自魔鬼,毫無能力可言。(12)所以你要服事那有權柄的信心,而戒絕那無能力的疑心,則你必將向上帝存活,而凡這樣存心的人,必皆向上帝存活。”
In Hermas, there is a spirit that catches up the author in ecstasy (Vis. 1.1.3; 2.2.1), a holy spirit that inhabits the faithful (Man. 5.1.2, 2.5; Sim. 5.6.5–7) who is exhausted by sadness and bitterness (Man. 10.1.2, 2.1–6), and a divine spirit or holy spirit who is the inspiration of true prophecy (Man. 11.7–9, 12) and of apostles and teachers (Sim. 9.25.2).
In some contexts, the term “holy spirit” is probably a general term for one of the many spirits that come from God and do God’s work.
There are other contexts, however, in which something more must be meant. Examples include Sim. 5.6.5, in which
the preexistent Holy Spirit dwells in human flesh, or Sim. 9.1.1, where the Shepherd reveals that it was the Holy Spirit who spoke to Hermas in the form of the church.
In these passages, a particular theological designation must be intended: that Spirit which is closest to God and is the most authoritative representative of God. This kind of ambiguity is not surprising in a text whose author seems to feel little need for theological consistency.

Osiek, C., & Koester, H. (1999). Shepherd of Hermas : A commentary. Hermeneia--a critical and historical commentary on the Bible (33). Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
(1)他說:“要恆忍和謹慎當心,你必將有能力克服一切惡行,必將施行一切公義。
(2)因為,如果你恆忍,住在你裡面的聖靈會得清淨而不為惡靈所污蔽,會得一直住在,高高興興,跟它所寓的身體欣然同住,並將以極大愉快去服事上帝,而於其中保有幸福。
(3)但若任何壞性情進入你裡面,微渺的聖靈立受壓迫,感到住處污濁,而求迅速離開,因為它被惡靈遏塞,更無如願服事主的餘地,受苦之極。因為主住在恆忍之中,魔鬼住在壞脾氣之中。
(4)所以,若是兩種靈同住在一處,那對於這樣擁有兩靈之人是無益而有惡害的。(Man.5.1-4)
(2)我問:“使女們是甚麼呢?”他說:“她們是聖潔的靈。一個人不能住在上帝國中,除非她們用其衣服加在他身上。(sim. 9.13.2)

(1)我說:“先生:首先請告我這事:磐石和門是甚麼?”他說:“
磐石和門即是上帝的兒子。
”我說:“先生,何以磐石是那麼古老,而門是那麼新呢?”他說:“傻瓜,聽我道來。
(2)上帝的兒子是比祂一切受造物都年長嘛,所以在創造上祂是父的謀臣,因此磐石顯得古老。”我說:“先生,為何門卻顯得新近的呢?”
(3)他說:“因為祂顯現在世界終局的最後一日,由此之故,門是新的,好叫那該得救的那群人,可以通過此門而進入上帝的國。”
(4)他又說:“你看見那些經門而入,放在塔上的石頭,但另一些石頭不曾進門而被送回它們的原處嗎?”我說:“先生,我看見。”他說:“因此,沒有一人得進入上帝國,除非他藉祂的聖名。
(5)例如你想進入一城,那城繞有城牆,只開一門,那末,你若不經那門,怎能進入城內呢?”我說:“先生,不錯,若不通過城門,是決不可能入城的。”他說:“那末,你既不能進入城內,除非經過此城之門,同樣,一個人也不能進入上帝國,除非藉祂所心愛的兒子的名。”
(6)他又說:“你看見那建塔的群眾嗎?”我說:“先生,我看見。”他說:“他們都是榮耀的天使;那麼,主是被他們所簇擁圍繞的。但門是上帝的兒子,這是到主處的唯一入口。沒有人能進至主處,除非通過祂的兒子。”
(7)他又說:“你看見六個男子,和在他們當中一位偉大而榮光的人,繞行於塔,而擯棄一些不中用的石頭嗎?”我說:“先生,我看到他。”
大有榮耀者
(8)他說:“那有榮耀的人即是上帝的兒子,六男子是華貴的天使,左右扶持著祂。”他又說:“
這些天使不藉上帝的兒子也不能進達上帝之前
。任何人,不奉祂的名,必不得入上帝國。”(sim. 9.12)
Regula fidei
認信
歸主
洗禮

(I believe) in (the Father) the ruler of the universe,
and in Jesus Christ (our Redeemer)
and in the Holy Spirit (the Paraclete)
and in the holy Church,
and in the forgiveness of sins.
從使徒權威(apostolic authority) 到使徒文獻權威(apostolic Literature)
洗禮與認信
「正典」概念的形成
聖職人員及聖統制度
崇拜與聖餐
教會聚會
信徒的道德要求
semen est sanguis Christianorum
(Tertullian, Apolog., 50.12)
基督徒的血是(教會的)種子。
教會獨一的根基,是主耶穌基督,
她是主的新創作,從水與道而出,
主從天上來尋她,作主聖潔新婦,
甘願流自己寶血,捨身將她買贖。

教會雖召自萬邦,信徒卻成一體,
同有救恩的憑證,一主一信一洗,
同尊獨一的聖名,同享唯一天糧,
同懷專一的盼望,同蒙恩愛無量。

教會歷盡了苦難,世人譏笑毀謗,
內爭分裂她身體,異端叛道中傷,
聖徒儆醒爭相問,黑夜到底多長?
哭泣將變為歌唱,轉眼即見晨光。

教會在地卻聯合,真神三位一體,
已享安息的聖徒,奧祕甜蜜團契;
懇求主賜恩我們,能像快樂聖徒,
同樣溫柔且謙虛,與主天上居住。
門徒的生命見證導致基督教急劇增長
nomen Christianum
martys
見證人
=
被認爲是猶太教的分派
基督徒作爲無神論者
聖餐被認爲是巫術
褻瀆權威罪
顛覆國家罪
公共治安權(coercitio)
因着基督徒之名
信仰規則
Hippolytus 《使徒傳統》(Traditio Apostolica)
聖餐(主日、週三週五、每天)
愛筵 (agape)
保密規定 arcana disciplina(太7:6「你們不要把聖物給狗」)
慕道班
Chapter 66. Of the Eucharist

And this food is called among us Εὐχαριστία [the Eucharist], of which
no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined.
For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that
the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh.
For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them; that Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, This do in remembrance of Me, Luke 22:19 this is My body; and that, after the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, This is My blood; and gave it to them alone. Which the wicked devils have imitated in the mysteries of Mithras, commanding the same thing to be done. For, that bread and a cup of water are placed with certain incantations in the mystic rites of one who is being initiated, you either know or can learn.
(Justin, Apologia, 65-67)
dies dominica
主日
dies stationis
禁食日
逾越節
受難節
五旬節
聖靈降臨節
聖誕節是在甚麼時候才出現?
早期信徒的極高道德標準
再婚的問題
Tertullian的《致我的太太》(Ad uxorem)
懺悔禮和補贖成為第二過拯救方式
http://www.tertullian.org/works/ad_uxorem.htm
重生的概念與基督徒名字
嬰孩洗禮的問題
異端受洗的有效性
特土良的看法(靈與水的關係)
Hippolytus(170–235)所寫的《使徒傳統》(Traditio Apostolica)清楚描繪了教會施洗的細則:主教會先預備兩瓶油,會老帶領受洗者到主教,主教膏沫受洗者,為受洗者驅魔;然後受洗者會被問及三個問題:
「你相信上帝全能的父嗎?」
「你相信耶穌基督上帝的兒子嗎?」
「你相信聖靈,聖而公之教會,並身體復活嗎?」,並為受洗者進行三次受洗。
http://www.tertullian.org/articles/evans_bapt/evans_bapt_text_trans.htm
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