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Copy of Copy of Psychology unit 1: Introduction to Psychology

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Robert Milstein

on 25 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Psychology unit 1: Introduction to Psychology

Historical Approaches
Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Modern Approaches
Behavioral
Biological
Cognitive
Humanistic
Psychodynamic
Sociocultural
So where do we start?
We start with what we can see right in front of us...
behavior
4 goals when looking at behavior
Look at what happens and record it
What is the reason for the behavior?
Given a specific set of circumstances, can we consistently and correctly guess what will cause a certain behavior to occur
Especially in the area of abnormal behavior, psychologists attempt to figure out how to change behavior
Describe it
Explain it
Predict it
Influence it
Research Psychology
Research Methods
Statistics
Ethical Issues
Applied Psychology
-Focuses on observable behavior

-The great majority of behavior is learned through rewards and punishments
John Watson
B.F. Skinner
-Focuses on the brain, nervous system, hormones, genetics, etc.

-Behavior is a result of physiological and neurological processes
-Focuses on our thoughts about ourselves and the world, and the "voices in our heads"

-How we think about things influences our behaviors
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
-Focuses on the human potential for growth, as well as self-esteem and self-image

-Our behavior is a result of our natural desire to grow and improve
-Focuses on the unconscious, childhood development, and sexuality

-Unconscious desires and early childhood trauma shape our behavior
Sigmund Freud
-Focuses on characteristics of people in different societies, cultures, and ethnicities

-Our behaviors are all based on what we learn from our society, culture, and ethnicity
Plato suggests that the brain is the mechanism of mental processes
Late 1800s
Early-Mid 1800's
Phrenology
Greek Philosophy
Structuralism
Functionalism
Wilhelm Wundt develops first psychology laboratory

His student, Edward Titchener, founds structuralism

Developed introspection as a method of observation
William James (founder)

Drew inspiration from Charles Darwin's theory of evolution

Fun facts: James taught the first psychology class ever and wrote the first psychology textbook ever
387 B.C.
What are the basic pieces/elements of the human mind?
Sociocultural
Psychological
Biological
Bio
psycho
social
The
Model
What is the function/purpose of the mind and/or it's parts?
Similar to looking at the hardware for a computer or the parts of a car
Question
Hypothesis
Procedure
Data
Conclusion
Naturalistic Observation
Case Studies
Longitudinal Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Surveys
Experiments
What are you going to do to prove or disprove your hypothesis?
?
So how do we do that?
Alfred Kinsey and the Kinsey reports
An extensive and indepth look at a single individual
Phineas Gage
Jane Goodall
Observing an individual or group in their natural habitat, typically with as little interference as possible

a.k.a. the "fly on the wall" technique
Follows a (usually large) group of people over a long period of time
The Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey
Tests groups of people from different groups (usually ages)
Ask a series of questions to a number of people (depends on the type of survey)
Test the subjects in a controlled environment, where you can manipulate the situation and observe the results
The Kinsey Scale
A question framed as a scientifically testable statement
All other research methods merely collect data, whereas experiments essentially create data
Experimental Design
Determine the Variables
Independent Variable(IV)
Dependent Variable(DV)
The variable being directly manipulated by the experimenter
The variable that changes as a result of the change in independent variable
Groups
What do the subjects have to do in the experiment?
Usually there are two groups within the experiment as well
Control Group
Experiment Group
These people
are
subjected to the independent variable
These people are
NOT
subjected to the independent variable
A good hypothesis will contain both the independent and dependent variables, often in an "if (IV), then (DV)" format

Ex: If a plant is exposed to sunlight, then it will grow more
Participant welfare outweighs potential gain
Do no harm!
Be open about your intentions
You should always be allowed to...
Confidentiality
no matter what knowledge may be gained you have to put the subjects first.
If harm is unwittingly done, fix it.
Tell your subjects the details of the experiment unless this knowledge will interfere with their actions
Whatever is learned about any of the subjects should be kept private!
if the subject expresses discomfort, or simply wants to stop, they should be allowed to, even at the cost of a good trial through the study.
Little Albert
The Stanford Prison Experiment
What's unethical about the study Watson did on Little Albert?
What's unethical about the Stanford Prison experiment?
Which is the experimental group? Control group?
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean
: the average
Median
: the middle score
Mode
: the most frequent number
Sum of all values in a data set
total number of values in the data set
1, 9, 11, 14, 18, 21, 29, 38, 40
Median=18
3, 4, 26, 40, 45, 49, 51, 52, 57, 64
If the data set has an
even
number of values, find the average of the middle two
Median=(45+49)/2=47
Correlations
Positive Correlation
Negative Correlation
No Correlation
"Correlation does not equal causation"
# hours spent studying
Test Scores
Test Scores
# of hours spent watching TV
Does ice cream make you kill people?!?!
NO!
(I Hope)
There's a third variable involved...
B
A causes/effects B
A
B
B causes/effects A
C
A
B
C causes/effects A
and
B
the summer heat
A method of comparing two sets of data
Both sets increase together
As one set increases, the other decreases
No clear relationship
Single Blind Experiments
Biases
Placebo effect
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Sow how do we avoid these?
A placebo is something that looks like a real drug/treatment, but in fact does nothing at all.
The placebo effect takes place when a person unknowingly gets a placebo, which does nothing, but their belief in the treatment actually makes them feel better
A Self Fulfilling Prophecy is a prediction about another person that causes itself to come true due to the simple fact that the prediction was made
Experiment where the subject does not know the purpose or details of the study, but the experimenter does
Not knowing what the experiment is looking at removes any potential biases from the experiment
Where do YOU think they would go?
Jean Piaget
Charles Darwin
VS.
What did you discover? Was your hypothesis correct or incorrect?
What do you want to know?
Analyze the data you got from your procedure. What does it tell you?
uagmire elped eter etonate harges!
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What's the IV here?

DV?
Sunlight
Growth
Research methods
A
(Long)
(Short)
You expect your new roommate to be shy so you don�t speak much to him after he moves in, and he therefore does seem shy

A coach expects his freshmen to be uncoordinated and unskilled so he does not play them often, and when he does they are rusty and do not perform well

Your professor expects you to do well and she spends extra time with you preparing for the exam, so you get an A
Double Blind Experiments
Experiment where neither the subject nor the experimenter knows the purpose or details of the experiment. The only one who knows is the experiment organizer.
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