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Introducing Ancient Rome

Introduction to our study of Ancient Rome
by

Michael Kirschner

on 31 March 2015

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Transcript of Introducing Ancient Rome

ROME
A n c i e n t
Site for Rome was chosen because
of it's geography.
Geography of Rome
Along the Tiber River
Fertile Soil
Mediterranean Sea
Seven hills
Alp Mountains to North
The First Romans
Latins, Greeks and Etruscans compete for control
Latins originally settle in Rome (1000-500 BC)
Etruscans and Greeks have great influence.
Development of a Republic
600 BC--Etruscan kings rule Rome
Kings build temples and public centers
509 BC--Romans overthrow a cruel king

They found a REPUBLIC.
Republic
A government system in which citizens elect leaders.
Political and Social Struggle
Patricians
Wealthy landowning class that holds most power
Plebeians
Artisans, merchants, and farmers.
Can vote, but cannot rule
Tribunes
Elected representatives that protect plebeians' rights.
Questions to Answer
in your Notebook?
1. Describe differences between how the rich
and poor lived.
2. "All roads lead to Rome" What is meant by this today?
3. What is a tunic? What is a toga?
Roman Law
The Twelve Tables
451 BC- Officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets.
Become basis for later Roman law.
Right of free citizens to protection of the law
Citizenship to adult male landowners
Twelve Table hung in the Forum
The Republic (Government)
Rome elects two CONSULS to direct government and the military.
Senate--chosen from Roman patricians; makes foreign and domestic policy.
Tribunes- assemblies that make laws for common people
Dictators--leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis
Answer in your notebook:
1. What set Rome apart from other civilizations?
2. What did Servius Tullius do that was important?
3. What name did Tullius give to the representative assembly?
End of Part One
Rome's Success was a result of two factors:
Trade Networks
Military
Rome's Commercial Network
Established a large trade network
Mediterranean Sea
Carthage--city state in North Africa; was Rome's commercial rival.
The Roman Army
Feared worldwide
Legion--a military unit of 5,000 infantrymen; supported by cavalry
Army was key factor to Rome's greatness
If you saw a large army marching toward you, how would you know it was the Roman Army?
Roman Expansion
Rome conquered the Etruscans in North and Greek city-states in the south.

Control Italian Peninsula by 265 BC.
PUNIC WARS
Punic Wars
Three wars with Carthage between 264-146 BC
Rome defeats Carthage, wins Sicily in first 23 year war.
Hannibal
Carthaginian general
Avenges defeat in Second Punic War
Attacks Italy though Spain and France;
Roman general Scipio defeats Hannibal in 202 BC
Third Punic War
149-146 BC
Rome destroys Carthage, enslaves the people
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZrjXEomBXM
Collapse of the Republic
Economic Turmoil
Gap between rich and poor widens
Farmers, former soldiers losing homes
Two reformers--Tiberius and Gaius murdered
Civil War
--conflict between groups within same country.
Military Upheaval
Becomes less disciplined and disloyal
Soldiers recruited from poor; show loyalty to generals and not the Republic.
Video Questions
1. What is a Latifundia?
2. What change did Marius make to the Roman Army?
3. What is a triumvirate?
4. Why was Julius Caesar popular with the poor?
5. Why was Caesar murdered?
Julius Caesar
Elected Consul in 59 BC
Was part of a triumvirate
Military victories gave him great popularity.
Pompey challenges Caesar, who defeats his armies in Greece, Asia, Spain and Egypt.
Named dictator for life in 44 BC.
Reforms of Caesar
Grants wider citizenship
Creates jobs for poor
March 15, 44 BC--Caesar is murdered by a group of Senators.
The Roman
Empire

After Caesar's Death......
Supporters of Caesar gain control
SECOND TRIUMVIRATE
Second Triumvirate
Octavian--Mark Antony--Lipidus
The Alliance ends in jealousy and violence.
31 BC-Mark Antony is defeated at Actium
Octavian
would win the power struggle and accepts title of
Augustus
"Exalted One"
Video Question
Name two things that were considered
when dividing the territory of Rome between these three men.
August Caesar
Under Augustus, Rome moves to an empire.
Roman Empire means a single ruler controls Rome
and the Citizens lose their power.
Pax Romana
200 years of peace and prosperity.
Augustus was Rome's most capable leader.
He glorifies Rome with beautiful public buildings.
Establishes a civil service to administer the empire.

Video Questions:
1. What is the purpose of the Civil Service?
2. What were the accomplishments of the Emperors?
3. Name two abusive emporers.
Some Facts About Rome
Farming was most important
industry. 90% of Romans were farmers.

Denarius--Roman coin that made
trade easier.

Vast trade network that included China and India.
Amazing network of Roman roads linking
Persia, Russia, China, and the entire empire.

Slavery--significant part of the empire. Some slaves become gladiators.
Over 150 holidays and Colosseum events created to control the masses.
Full transcript