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The Endocrine System
Transcript of The Endocrine System
o Pineal gland
o Pituitary gland
o Parathyroid gland
o Thyroid gland
o Adrenal glands
o Testes The hormones produced by the endocrine glands act as chemical messengers. The hormones are released into the blood stream to target cells that are designed to receive the hormones. The hormones transfer information from set of the cells to another to coordinate the functions of the different parts of the body. Some of these functions are the regulation of growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function. "The Endocrine System" The endocrine system is one of the body’s main systems for communicating, controlling and coordinating the body’s work. It works with the nervous system, reproductive system, kidneys, gut, liver, pancreas and fat to help maintain and control the following:
o Body energy levels
o Growth and development
o Internal balance of body systems The Illustration of the... Endocrine Glands Regulation of the Endocrine System The negative feedback system controls the thyroxin level in the blood. The hypothalamus, which is part of the brain, has cells that detect the presence of thyroxine in the blood. Thyroxine is essential for normal growth and development. It is also involved in energy metabolism. When the thyroxine level is low, the hypothalamus secretes a hormone that stimulates the pituitary to secrete the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The TSH causes the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin. When the thyroxine level returns to normal, the hypothalamus stops secreting TSH. As a result, the pituitary stop secreting TSH and the thyroid slows down the secretion of thyroxine. The endocrine system has a control mechanism for its own production of hormones depending on the concentration level of hormones present in the blood. This mechanism is called negative feedback. The Endocrine System Disorders Diabetes When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose. Given that the endocrine system regulates growth processes, endocrine system diseases often result in growth disorders. If the body produces too much growth hormone (GH), gigantism or acromegaly (gigantism in adults) can occur; too little growth hormone results a condition called growth hormone deficiency, or GHD, which can cause children to grow more slowly than normal. Osteoporosis, which occurs in both women and men (although the former are four times more likely to develop the disease), is a condition in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. This can be the result of many factors including a decrease in the hormone estrogen occurring during menopause in women, or a decrease in testosterone occurring in men as they age. Growth Disoders Osteoporosis Thyroid hormones, hormones produced by the thyroid gland, influence nearly all of the body's symptoms. Thyroid problems include hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone), hypothyroidism (too little thyroid hormone), thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, and more. Thyroid Disorders The changes of menopause begin when your ovaries, the organs that form eggs, no longer produce eggs. Their production of female hormones decreases at this time too. Hormones are chemicals secreted by endocrine system glands, or organs, that travel through the blood to another organ, where they produce a specific effect on some bodily process. Two hormones made in the ovaries - estrogen and progesterone - help to regulate a woman's monthly period.
As you approach mid-life, estrogen begins to drop to low levels. The reproductive organs gradually shut down, just as they gradually became active during puberty. Most women notice that their periods become lighter, farther apart and then eventually, they end. Menopause Obesity Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too much. The weight may come from muscle, bone, fat and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height.
Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for each person. Factors that might tip the balance include your genetic makeup, overeating, eating high-fat foods and not being physically active. The Endocrine System Disorders The system that helps the body communicate, control and coordinate various functions is the endocrine system. The other systems with which this system interacts includes the nervous system, the reproductive system, liver, gut, pancreas, fat and the kidneys. This interaction is carried out via a network of glands and organs. These glands and organs can produce, store and secrete many types of hormones. Thus, this system helps control and regulate: How Does Endocrine System Function with Other Systems? • Reproductive system: Helps in controlling the formation of gametes
• Skeletal system: Helps in controlling the growth of bones
• Muscular system: Helps in controlling muscle metabolism
• Excretory system: Helps control water in the kidneys
• Respiration system: Helps in controlling the rate of respiration IS EVERYONE READY? "THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM"
Presented by the Group Four:
Gian Nangel - An autoimmune disease results when the body’s system for fighting infection—the immune system—turns against a part of the body. In diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. A person who has type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily to live.
- At present, scientists do not know exactly what causes the body’s immune system to attack the beta cells, but they believe that autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors, possibly viruses, are involved.
- Symptoms may include increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and extreme fatigue. If not diagnosed and treated with insulin, a person with type 1 diabetes can lapse into a life-threatening diabetic coma, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis. - This form of diabetes is most often associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, previous history of gestational diabetes, physical inactivity, and certain ethnicities.
- When type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but for unknown reasons the body cannot use the insulin effectively, a condition called insulin resistance. After several years, insulin production decreases. The result is the same as for type 1 diabetes—glucose builds up in the blood and the body cannot make effi cient use of its main source of fuel.
- Symptoms may include fatigue, frequent urination, increased thirst and hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds or sores. Some people have no symptoms. Gestational Diabetes
- Some women develop gestational diabetes late in pregnancy. Although this form of diabetes usually disappears after the birth of the baby, women who have had gestational diabetes have a 40 to 60 percent chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years. Maintaining a reasonable body weight and being physically active may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes.
- As with type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes occurs more often in some ethnic groups and among women with a family history of diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes is caused by the hormones of pregnancy or a shortage of insulin. Women with gestational diabetes may not experience any symptoms. Video Video Thyroid nodules are lumps that commonly arise within an otherwise normal thyroid gland. Often these abnormal growths of thyroid tissue are located at the edge of the thyroid gland so they can be felt as a lump in the throat. When they are large or when they occur in very thin individuals, they can even sometimes be seen as a lump in the front of the neck. - Some nodules are actually cysts that are filled with fluid rather than thyroid tissue.
- Most individuals will develop a thyroid nodule by the time they are 50 years old.