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Transcript of Imagined Communities
by Benedict Anderson Print-Capitalism
The vernacularization of languages (partly in an attempt to maximize profits) helps create a sense of differentiated communities (i.e., In Europe, Latin was no longer seen as the only language of power), and other languages formed the bases of different nationalisms. Newspapers and novels European Colonization of the Americas European Colonization of Asia and Africa Europe Western European nationalism develops The modern nation-state Liberalism, Enlightenment thought, and economic interest, but most of all, "creole functionaries" in the Americas "played the decisive historical role" in the formation of nationalism in the Americas. "Official nationalism" develops to supplement the concept of European empires (e.g. the British Empire). This official nationalism is at odds with the "dynastic realm." In the case of the British Empire, for example, the wide variety of colonial holdings made it difficult to stretch British "official nationalism" across seas and continents. "Nation-building" in Europe occurs both out of genuine nationalism and out of "Machiavellian" methods (changes in education systems, uses of mass media, etc.). Changes in educational structures cause the emergence of "Romes" throughout colonized areas--places where youth would go to study and see themselves as a "we" belonging to a nation. The structure of the colonial state itself affected the nationalism of colonized Asia and Africa. Census: Systematic quantification of previously unquantified census categorization (e.g. Indian Muslims). Map: New ways of mapping and showing boundaries causes the creation of a "political-biographical narrative" of "nation-states". Also, maps were viewed as "logos" and began being used as "emblems" for anti-colonialism. Museum: Political use of museums as a form of "logoizing" specific "imposing monuments" and the like. This colonial-era practice continued to be used even post-independence (e.g. Cambodian use of art as a "sign for national identity"). French and American examples are "pirated" and adapted by various parts of the world. Anderson presents this aspect of his argument early on, making it difficult to place temporally accurately.