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Theory of Knowledge Artificial Intelligence

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Jarrett Levine

on 4 March 2013

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Transcript of Theory of Knowledge Artificial Intelligence

Theory of Knowledge: To what extent are essential differences present between human and artificial intelligence?
Jarrett Levine Real Life Situation What is Artificial Intelligence? AI is behavior of a machine, which, if performed by a human being, would be called intelligence. It makes machines smarter and more useful! Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. It is also defined as “the study and design of intelligent agents” where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. What would happen if Smarterchild talked to itself? Related KIs Could a computer ever develop consciousness?
Could a computer ever feel emotions?
Is thinking a kind of computation?
Does the gain of certain knowledge lead to ethical implications? Computational Theory of Mind
The computational theory of mind is the theory that the mind/brain is a computer. The theory can be elaborated in many ways, the most popular of which is that the brain is a computer and the mind is the program that the brain runs. So the computational theory of mind is the claim that the mind is a machine that derives output representations of the world from input representations in a deterministic (non-random) and formal (non-semantic) way.
AOK: Natural Sciences,
Artificial Consiousness David Chalmers proposal is roughly that computers perform computations and the right kinds of computations are sufficient for the possession of a conscious mind. He defends his claim thus: "Computers perform computations. Computations can capture other systems’ abstract causal organization. Mental properties are nothing over and above abstract causal organization. Therefore, computers running the right kind of computations will instantiate mental properties."
A view skeptical of AC is held by theorists who hold that consciousness can only be realized in particular physical systems because consciousness has properties that necessarily depend on physical constitution Can computers have emotions? To understand whether computers can have emotions, we would need to define emotions.
Artificial brain theorist believe that the existence of an artificial brain would lead to and include an emotional capacity.
Speech Recognition AI(speech-to-text) Ability to read and understand language
Acquire Knowledge
Machine Translation

E.g. Microsoft Speech Recognition Engine:

Speech recognition allows you to provide input to an application with your voice. In the desktop world, you need a microphone to be able to do this. VoiceXML just needs a telephone.

Automatic Call Handling Systems Natural Language Processing (NLP) refers to Artificial Intelligence methods of communicating with a computer in a natural language like English. The main objective of a NLP program is to understand input and initiate action. Expert Systems may combine  the knowledge of many experts in a specific field,
can store  an unlimited amount of  information, and works  much faster, than a human,
are  available 24 hours a day, and can be used at a distance over a network,
are able to explain their information requests and suggestions,
can process client's uncertain responses and, by combining several pieces of uncertain information, may still be able to make strong recommendations,
can accumulate the knowledge of high level employees for any company, which is  especially useful  when the company needs to fire  them due to worsened market conditions. ES are effective because: Today, they exist in many forms, from medical diagnosis to investment  analysis and from counseling to production control, weather forecasting, online mapping and driving directions, diagnostic systems for automotive repair shops.
Companies  using  expert systems technology : NASA, HP,  Lockheed,  Boing, DaimlerChrysler AG, various power, gas and oil stations.
The Israeli company, Expert Solutions International, produces the expert system, Logist, which enables organizations to rapidly create robust applications, well-integrated with their business activities The Concerns of AI Technological singularity
Unemployment
Human evolution as cyborgs Technological Singularity Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an 'intelligence explosion,' and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make.

The Singularity is beyond huge, but it can begin with something small. If one smarter-than-human intelligence exists, that mind will find it easier to create still smarter minds. In this respect the dynamic of the Singularity resembles other cases where small causes can have large effects; toppling the first domino in a chain, starting an avalanche with a pebble, perturbing an upright object balanced on its tip. All it takes is one technology – Artificial Intelligence, brain-computer interfaces, or perhaps something unforeseen – that advances to the point of creating smarter-than-human minds. That one technological advance is the equivalent of the first self-replicating chemical that gave rise to life on Earth. Martin Ford and others argue that specialized artificial intelligence applications, robotics and other forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment as machines begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most routine and repetitive jobs.
But it also means you can hire a robot to earn for you while you employ your time and energy elsewhere. Unemployment Cyborgs Edward Fredkin argues that "artificial intelligence is the next stage in evolution,“

Samuel Butler's "Darwin among the Machines" (1863) The Turing Test Artificial Brain Ways of Knowing Hubert Dreyfus describes this argument as claiming that that "if the nervous system obeys the laws of physics and chemistry, which we have every reason to suppose it does, then .... we ... ought to be able to reproduce the behavior of the nervous system with some physical device."
"Scientist create tiny artificial brain that exhibits 12 seconds of memory" Empiricism observing the robot successfully completing actions (turing test) Rationalism acquire trust through reasoning and rationally deducing from information, observe components reason through induction reason through deduction Intuition
intuitively believe that humans are superior Conditions aimed to resolve: "can machines think?"
human and computer put behind a screen
an interrogator asks them questions
if interrogator cannot distinguish between the person and computer, the computer can think The Chinese Room Experiment John Searle
shows that a computer cannot have a mind, understanding, nor conscience
the appearance of thought and intelligence is false
computers use syntactic rules to manipulate symbol strings, but have no understanding of meaning or semantics.
against artificial intelligence, functionalism and computationalism thought experiment Searle presents a three premise argument, that because syntax is not sufficient for semantics, programs cannot produce minds.

1) Programs are purely formal (syntactic).
2) Human minds have mental contents (semantics).
3) Syntax by itself is neither constitutive of, nor sufficient for, semantic content.
4) Therefore, programs by themselves are not constitutive of nor sufficient for minds. If a machine acts as intelligently as a human being, then it is as intelligent as a human being.
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