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WW1 The Gallipoli War
Transcript of WW1 The Gallipoli War
By Tina, Nicola, Sophia, Holly, Izabella & Katia
The entire operation evacuated 142 000 casualties. 747 men died on the first day alone. In the Gallipoli campaign there were 26 111 Australian casualties, 1007 of which were officers and 25 104 of other ranks. Of these casualties, 362 officers and 7 779 men were killed in action, and the rest died of wounds or succumbed to disease. Of the 1 million men involved between one third and half of them became casualties. Some of which went missing. Nine Victoria Crosses were awarded to soldiers in Australian units
The Causalities and Amount of Soldiers At War
On the 25th of April in 1915 the Anzac’s Landed on the coast line of Gaba Tepe and Ari Burnu. Their goal was to keep Turkish troops retreating from the south and to stop Turkish forces arriving from the north.
The environment included steep mountains that surrounded the coast line. The Turks where situated at the peeks which gave them the advantage to gun down on the Anzac troops who were coming in on boats at sea level. The Anzac's were forced to dig narrow and deep trenches situated on the edge of a cliff, with the sea behind them and the Turkish forces in front, occupying higher ground. The temperatures varied as the summer brought extremely hot days, while the winter months brought rain and a lot of wind.
Impacts of the Battle
- According to Official history, 70 Australians were captured on Gallipoli.
- Despite all of the death in the Gallipoli Campaign, the battle had no influence on WW1.
- The Gallipoli battle ended when no one could fight anymore, a stalemate. The ANZACs retreated after eight months of fighting.
- During the Gallipoli campaign the Anzac and Turkish soldiers called a truce for eight hours to bury their dead on May 24 1915.
- Charles Billyard-Leake helped the ANZACs. In 1914, he was living in UK in a manor, he turned this manor into a hospital for ANZAC soldiers. During the war, and for a while after it had ended, over 50,000 Australians stayed at this Harefield Hospital.
- Alec Campbell was the last surviving ANZAC soldier, who died on 16 May, 2002.
Living Conditions Of Australian Soldiers
Impacts of Battle
Confrontations between Protestants and Catholics
Increase in price of food (32%)
Food was rationed
More conservative when using resources/money
Women volunteered as nurses workforce
Death toll of 26 111, comprising of 1007 officers and 25 104 other ranks. Of these, 362 officers and 7 779 men were killed in action, died of wounds or succumbed to disease.
ANZAC soldiers in a captured Turkish trench on Lone Pine, Gallipoli
ANZAC soldier carrying a wounded comrade on Gallipoli.
Impacts of the Battle
Increase in domestic violence
Increase in divorce rates
Difficulty finding jobs
Programs developed for returned soldiers (Soldier Settler Scheme)
Physical injuries (burdening others)
Psychological damage causing nightmares and depression
More opportunities (women)
Differences between soldiers and non soldiers
Women assuming “men’s” vocations
Fashion evolved especially for women
Where did Australian's fight?
With the development of technology during the early twentieth century, the weapons and strategies used during WWI were far more advanced than previous wars. This was was given the title 'The Great War' as it was far more devastating.
During the war, soldiers created trenches and dugouts in an effort to provide protection from the Turkish army. The only way the soldiers could dig these trenches was to lay on their stomachs as standing would make them easy targets for the Turks. Eventually, dugouts appeared all over the hillsides above Anzac cove for protection. Both armies used the trenches to observe, shoot and bomb the enemy army.
Nature of Warfare
ANZAC soldiers in a trench in Gallipoli using a periscope and rifle
-Trench mortars (toffee apple)
-Rifle with bayonet
-Hand to hand combat
The Australian soldiers had to adapt to the poor living conditions while fighting in Gallipoli.
The weather in Turkey had become hot by June, and plagues of disease-carrying flies and fleas were spreading. By October, the soldiers were beginning to experience the bitter cold, mud and ice which was normal for a Turkish winter.
Health & Hygiene:
It was almost impossible to stay clean while at war. The only place where the soldiers could bathe was down by the beach. Troops who had arrived in the best physical conditions soon suffered from dysentery, diarrhoea, gastroenteritis and infestations of lice. Toilets were open pits. As many as 20% of the Australian soldiers were sick from diseases relating to hygiene within the first few weeks of fighting.
Supply ships from Egypt provided the soldiers with water, however there was never enough. The soldiers ate corned beef, onions, crackers, biscuits and stews. The biscuits and crackers often had to be grated or ground up as they were too hard to eat and often broke the soldier's teeth.
Suffering & Death:
Turkish soldiers kept the Anzac's under constant threat with hand grenades, sniper fire, mortar bombs and shell blasts. If an Australian soldier was wounded they would lay for hours awaiting medical attention. Corpses lay rotting in no-man's land between the opposing trenches because it was unsafe to try and retrieve them for burial. It was difficult to escape from the war physically or psychologically.
The heat early in the campaign prompted the Anzac's to modify their uniforms – and sometimes wear as little as possible.
Two unidentified soldiers stand amid boxes of bully beef stacked in a supply depot on the beach at Anzac Cove. The cans in the foreground were used for carrying kerosene or water.
What happened at Gallipoli?
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, was a campaign of World War I that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire (modern Turkey), between April 25 1915 and January 9 1916.
For some men the hardest adjustments were those of the mind. In the cities there was an upsurge of violence and drunkenness in 1919 [...] Men [...] were trying to forget, to blot out the gruesome sights and the waste of a horrible past.
- Bill Gammage
Gammage, B 2010, The broken years: Australian soldiers in the Great War, Melbourne University Publishing, Carlton, Vic.
[H]idden in homes all over Australia were men who had gone to World War 1 and who were never the same again. For most the disabilities were physical, but there were plenty who were by turn remote or morose or who shouted all the time. For the worst affected, family life became punctuated by sudden rages, drinking bouts and black depressions, but even for the most stable, there was always a shadow: ‘My father was in both wars. I didn’t think they had any effect on him until I sat with him in his last illness. He cried for his friends in the trenches at Gallipoli and told of his fears. I realized as children we had only been told the funny bits.’
Janet McCalman, Journeyings, Melbourne University Press, 1993 pages 80-81