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Internationalisation – From Principles to Practice

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David Killick

on 21 May 2015

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Transcript of Internationalisation – From Principles to Practice

Nurturing Environment for IOC
Post-national university?
Principles- Internationalisation should be:
How a learning outcome can help
Contact which has the potential to reduce prejudice (to nurture curiosity, risk- taking, through successful cross-cultural encounter).
(Constructive alignment)
At the end of this module, students will be able to present a summary (analysis, critical review) of [a subject specific issue].
Hidden messages in the formal curriculum
- sources & citations, case studies, images & media selection
- language, voice, etiquette, expectations


which are: authentic/relevant to all participants, 'global' in scope/application

Intergroup Co-operation
through: collaborative tasks, expert informants, process-focussed

Authority support
through: consistency; embedding; reward & recognition;

Inclusivity - for example supporting and enabling students with respect to…
understanding something of how we might appear to others;
being willing to see our own values and behaviours as cultural habits which may be as strange to others as theirs are to us;
listening, reflecting, enquiring, and so forth before judging another’s ideas or behaviours;
being willing to accept the value others ascribe to their behaviours and ideas, even where we may not agree with them;
being able to modify our language and/or behaviour to help the flow of communication with others;
From Principles to Practice

as an amalgam of
“fragmented and rather unrelated terms”
academic practice
a process with "far reaching implications"
the “complex social environment of the university in the 21st century”,
which is “fraught with tensions”
Principle #5
owned by the
whole institution
underpinned by explicit values
Principle #2
embarked upon on the basis of explicit objectives
Principle #3
driven by identified and appropriately resourced functional areas
Principle #4
evaluated against explicit and measurable targets
David Killick
Leeds Beckett University


Value for IOC
Academic equity
seek to
do no harm
do equal good
(to everyone)
“UNESCO’s position in this field is that higher education in a globalized society should assure equity of access and respect cultural diversity as well as national sovereignty.” (UNESCO, 2004, p. 25)
"Painel Paulo Freire, detalhe 4" by Luiz Carlos Cappellano - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Any situation in which some individuals prevent
others from engaging in the process of inquiry is one of violence. (Paulo Freire, 1970, p. 85)

i. the recruitment of international students
ii. the study abroad opportunities for domestic students
iii. the international distance delivery of awards
iv. the international physical delivery of awards
v. the international partnership network
vi. the international representativeness among staff
vii. the international content of the curriculum
viii. the international appropriateness of the delivery of the curriculum

i. to increase/diversify institutional revenues and surpluses

ii. to make viable some valued but under-recruiting provision

iii. to gain future regional influence through returned alumni

iv. to strengthen the reputation of research (in field x) at a university

v. to make a course or set of courses among the ‘best’ in the world by
attracting the most talented students globally

vi. to enhance cross-cultural learning opportunities on campus

vii. to add international dimensions to disciplinary knowledge and enrich the learning experience

Objectives for IOC
i) it is a process which seeks to enhance the capabilities of our graduates

ii) those capabilities are to be relevant to the globalising world

.......to enhance the capabilities of our graduates to:

be employable in a globalising world
make positive contributions in a globalising world
lead ethical and sustainable lives in a globalising world
become global leaders in a globalising world

Capabilities "to lead a life
we have reason to value"
By Government of Thailand ([1] Uploaded by 2T) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
...to enhance the capabilities of our graduates to lead lives they have reason to value in a globalising world
At the end of this module, students will be able to present a summary (analysis, critical review) of [a subject specific issue]
in language which is accessible to an audience including speakers of English as a second or foreign language.
[The curriculum that] no teacher explicitly teaches
but that all students learn… including how the school views them as human beings. (Banks 2001: 23)

The habits and habitus
embedded in
our hidden curriculla.

[The hidden curriculum includes] those incidental lessons that are
learned about power and authority, what and whose knowledge is valued and what and whose knowledge is not valued. (Leask 2009: 207)

Higher education has … a set of values and a ‘hidden curriculum’ that conveys moral
messages to students and influences their character … Universities through their mission statements, structure and cultural life exercise an influence on their students’ character formation.
(Arthur & Bohlin 2005: 21)

“…most investigations have concluded that
domestic students are largely uninterested in initiating contact with their international peers.”
(Ward 2001: 4)

The nexus "fraught with tensions"
“…surveys indicate that there is little interaction
and high levels of disinterest between local and international students.”
(Ensenchlas & Trvaskes 2007: 414

…universities are deluding themselves if they believe that the presence of international students on campus contributes to the internationalization of higher education.
(Wright and Lander 2003: 250)

The presence of foreign students does not even make a positive impact on the education of domestic students except in limited situations... (Bond 2003: 14)

"I don't know why we have to talk to these international students...we're not interested in what they have to say"
By European Association of Social Psychologie (www.easp.eu/_img/pics/persons/tajfel.jpg) [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Apologies -
no attribution
The nub of the matter seems to be that contact must reach
below the surface in order to be effective in altering prejudice. Only the type of contact that leads people to do things together is likely to result in changed attitudes.
(Allport 1979: 276)

Common Goals
Intergroup Co-operation
Authority support
Educational Developers ?
PGCAPs, PGCHE's, CPD programmes
do no harm
do equal good
diversely international/multicultural in content
convey inclusivity in practice
demand critical engagement with & respect practice in diverse contexts
require collaborative working
reward diverse perspectives/solutions
summatively assess inclusivity & global perspectives

To what extent do we pursue and enable others to pursue development which ensures we can all conduct our professional lives in ways we have reason to value in a globalising world?
To what extent do we pursue and enable others to pursue development which ensures we can all conduct our professional lives in ways we have reason to value in a globalising world?

How will we continue to do so in the complex worlds of our post-national universities?

Seeking to do no harm and equal good.
Social identity
is part of people's self concept - and it is emotionally significant; being in my social 'in-group' is a comfortable space...
1. 72 per cent
2. 11 per cent
3. 16%
4. 570,000
5. 4 million
6. 700
7. 210,00
8. 8,000
9. 77,000
10. 34

Education is transformative and can be either a locus for redressing disadvantage or conversely for reinforcing elitism. (Sally Brown, 2015, p 202)
No university or indeed national higher education system can behave as if it not working in a global environment.
(Sally Brown, 2015, p.202)

Values statement:
Internationalisation of the curriculum should seek to do no harm and to do equal good by ensuring/enhancing equitable learning experiences for all our students
Managing intercultural/diverse student group work
Expectations/climates for IC group working are established from Day1
IC group work skills are taught and assessed - components are embedded in learning outcomes
Students are required to reflect on their IC learning as part of the group task
Assessed tasks require collaboration & the integration of diverse (e.g.) cultural, social, personal knowledge, experience, perspectives
Students are supported in dealing with/learning from negative experiences of IC interactions

(See Betty Leask, 2015 for more)
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