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philosophers of the enlightenment
Transcript of philosophers of the enlightenment
Jonh Locke(lawyer)+Agnes Knee.
He was born on 29 August 1632 in a church in Wrington.
His parents were Puritans.
Locke was sent to the prestigious Westminster School in London and to Christ Church in Oxford.
He studied Medicine
He involved in politics in 1672.
He was Suspected to be involved in the Rye House Plot(attempt to kill King Charles II).
He died on October 1802 Main Contributions:
Theories of religious tolerance
Theory of value and property: property is a natural right derived from labor.
Political theory: human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance, but also selfish. "Liberty Life and the Pursuit of happiness"
Limits to accumulation: Limits to accumulation in order not to waste.
NATURAL LAW: Divine, morality, harmony.
He influenced the Glorious Rev. Major Works
A Letter Concerning Toleration
A Second Letter Concerning Toleration
A Third Letter for Toleration
Two Treatises of Government
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Some Thoughts Concerning Education
The Reasonableness of Christianity, as Delivered in the Scriptures
A Vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity Biography:
He was born on October 5, 1713.
Didier Diderot+Angélique Vigneron.
He studied Philosophy and Law.
He wanted to enter to the clergy, but instead he became a writer.
Sponsored by Catherine II of Russia.
Diderot died of gastrointestinal problems in Paris on July 31, 1784 Main Contributions:
Interrelation between man's reason and the knowledge acquired through perception.
Problems with the church: imprisoned at Vincennes.
GREATEST PROJECT: L'Encyclopédie with d'Alembert+Michel-Antoine David+ Laurent Durand+Antoine-Claude Briasson.
Encyclopedia: unorthodox and had many forward-thinking ideas for the time.
He wrote Plays.
Diderot speculated on free will and held a completely materialistic view of the universe; he suggested all human behavior is determined by heredity. Major Works:
Essai sur le Merite et la Vertu
Les Bijoux Indiscrets
Lettre sur les Aveugles
Lettre sur les Sourds et Muets
Pensées sur l'Interprétation de la Nature
Le Neveu de Rameau
Le Fils Naturel
Le Père de Famille Biography:
Suzanne Bernard+Isaac Rousseau(watchmaker).
He was born on 28 June 1712.
Her mother died when he was born and his father was exiled.
He grew up in his uncle's house.
He lived in Geneva because of religious issues.
He independized at 16.
He was exiled from France to Enlgland.
He returns to France with a Fake name.
He had 5 children with Thérèse Levasseur.
He died due to a heart attack in 1778 at age 66. Main Contributions:
The Necessity of Freedom:1. Natural man is physically free because he is not constrained by a repressive state apparatus or dominated by his fellow men. 2. He is psychologically and spiritually free because he is not enslaved to any of the artificial needs that characterize modern society.
Good government must have the freedom of all its citizens as its most fundamental objective.
Many of the ideas we take for granted, such as property, law, and moral inequality, actually have no basis in nature.
The Danger of Need: “Needs” result from the passions, which make people desire an object or activity. 1. State of nature: needs --> food, sleep, sex. 2. Modern society: Nonessential things, such as friends, entertainment, and luxury goods. (superfluous) become neccesary.
Moral Inequality: Pursuit of needs inevitably means that some will be forced to work to fulfill the needs of others. ALL MEN ARE EQUAL IN THEIR NATURAL STATE.
The General Will and the Common Good: 1. Healthy state: General will=All private wills. 2. State where the vulgarities of private interest prevail over the common interests of the collective: Law to remain people loyal.
The Idea of Collective Sovereignty: Sovereign BEFORE was regarded as the central authority (monarch). In Rousseau’s work: Sovereignty resides in society. Major Works: Dissertation sur la musique moderne
Discourse on the Arts and Sciences
Narcissus, or The Self-Admirer
Le Devin du Village
Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men
Discourse on Political Economy
Letter to M. D'Alembert on Spectacles
Julie, or the New Heloise
Émile: or, on Education
The Creed of a Savoyard Priest
The Social Contract
Four Letters to M. de Malesherbes
Pygmalion: a Lyric Scene
Letters Written from the Mountain
Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Constitutional Project for Corsica
Considerations on the Government of Poland
Essay on the Origin of Languages, published
Dialogues: Rousseau Judge of Jean-Jacques Biography:
François-Marie Arouet was born on 20 February 1694 in Paris
He was the youngest of five children.
Voltaire was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand.
French, Latin, Greek, Italian, Spanish and English.
He studied Law, but he loved to write.
Critiques to gov+religious intolerance = imprisionments and exiles: Great Britain, Geneva, Bastille.
Writer, historian and philosopher.
He died on 30 May 1778. Main Contributions:
The primary satirist of the Enlightenmenent.
Influenced by Newton and Locke.
Critics to religion, but believe in God.
WIT. Target: Christianity: glorified superstition.
Ardent supporter of monarchy.
Worked towards a judicial reform.
Virtue of reason over superstition.
Toleration of other religions and ethnicities.
Anti-semitist works. "It does not require great art, or magnificently trained eloquence, to prove that Christians should tolerate each other. I, however, am going further: I say that we should regard all men as our brothers. What? The Turk my brother? The Chinaman my brother? The Jew? The Siam? Yes, without doubt; are we not all children of the same father and creatures of the same God?".- Voltaire Major Works:
Letters concerning the English nation
Sept Discours en Vers sur l'Homme
Traité sur la tolérance
Ce qui plaît aux dames
La Princesse de Babylone Biography:
Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu.
Jacques de Secondat(soldier)+Marie Françoise de Pesnel(noble)
His father died when he was 7.
He studied at the Catholic College of Juilly.
He was influenced by the Glorious Rev. and the Bourbon's monarchy.
He was one of the most important influences to the American Rev.
He was troubled by poor eyesight, and was completely blind by the time he died from a high fever in 1755. Main Contributions:
Classes France: the monarchy, the aristocracy, and the commons.
Montesquieu saw two types of governmental power existing: the sovereign and the administrative.
Administrative: Executive, Legislative, Judicial. (separate, depeendant upon each other): Eliminated ·3states.
Distinguished 3 types of gov. 1. Monarchies2. Republics 3. Despotism. Major Works:
Les causes de l'écho (The Causes of an Echo)
Les glandes rénales (The Renal Glands)
La cause de la pesanteur des corps (The Cause of Gravity of Bodies)
La damnation éternelle des païens (The Eternal Damnation of the Pagans, 1711)
Système des Idées (System of Ideas, 1716)
Lettres persanes (Persian Letters, 1721)
Le Temple de Gnide (The Temple of Gnide, a novel; 1724)
Arsace et Isménie ((The True History of) Arsace and Isménie, a novel; 1730)
Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (Considerations on the Causes of the Grandeur and Decadence of the Romans, 1734)
De l'esprit des lois ((On) The Spirit of the Laws, 1748)
La défense de «L'Esprit des lois» (In Defence of "The Spirit of the Laws", 1748)
Pensées suivies de Spicilège (Thoughts after Spicilège)